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1. An effective teacher/instructor with skills in:
(b) Instructional management to accommodate individual variability

1b3 Annotated Bibliography

Development Plan Portfolio Documentation

Read selected books and online materials.

Write an annotated bibliography with applications to my workplace.

  1. Notes
    1. EDCI665 Advanced Instructional Models: Cooperative Learning for Adults
    2. The Courage to Teach
    3. Multiple Intelligences
    4. Faculty Reading List and Other Authors
  2. List of References
  3. Bibliography

1. Notes

1.1 EDCI665 Advanced Instructional Models: Cooperative Learning for Adults

Several of the authors who contributed to my understanding of this competency were introduced when I took the course EDCI665 Advanced Instructional Models: Cooperative Learning for Adults with Dr. Larry Burton.

At the time I took this course (Summer 1999), I had taught two lecture based courses on a contract basis - Management Information Systems on campus in Fall 1997, and IT Management in Singapore in December 1998.  I was scheduled to teach Management Information Systems in Singapore in October 1999, so I was eager to learn anything that I could apply in teaching that course.  I would be teaching MBA students this time rather than Master of Software Engineering students, and had been told that they were much more outgoing and responsive.

However, I was not going to leave it all to chance, so I deliberately incorporated a number of the active learning principles and techniques described by Johnson, Johnson and Smith.  I had mini-case studies for each lesson where we broke into groups and the groups selected a different person each time to report the group's conclusions.  To encourage the participation of the whole class during discussion time, I had written each student's name and pertinent details on 5" by 3" cards, and could pick names at random by shuffling them, or I could go through the class alphabetically.  When using the latter option, I sometimes found that the last student called would tune out of the discussion since he/she would not be called on again for a while.  So I began to work on an automated way of selecting the next student.  I had a spreadsheet for recording attendance, so I added a feature that would randomly a student from those in attendance, with a couple of constraints.  I wanted to ensure that in a class of say 12 students, everyone would get called within 12 "or so" questions.  In a strictly random sequence, some students would get called 2 or 3 times while another may not get called at all.  Initially I set it up so that any student called a second time while others had not yet been called would be skipped after the first time.  But this created the same problem as reading from the 5" by 3" cards alphabetically.  So I programmed in a variable factor that allowed a second question before everyone had been called the first time.

Both Active Learning and Cooperative Learning contain a wealth of material from which valuable learning activities can be taken.  But as Dr. Burton stressed many times during the course, the instructor needs to plan out very carefully how the activity will be used, practice it, preferably in a dry run or role play situation.  Otherwise you have to learn how to use it "on the job".  I consider myself to be fortunate to have opportunities from time to time to teach a class for the university, but the opportunities are too infrequent to make significant use of the material in these books.  This is a pity, because I feel that if I were able to master some of the activities, I am sure I would want to use them.

1.2 The Courage to Teach

The author of The Courage to Teach, Parker Palmer (1998), was the featured speaker at the 1999 Leadership Roundtable Conference.  I made notes of some of my reading, recording sentences or phrases here and there that impressed me.  However, I had to work very hard to get through Chapter II to get to what came after.  I found Chapter II to be unbelievably depressing.  The depth of Palmer's introspection amazes me, but this is no doubt because "exploring the inner landscape" is something I very rarely do.  On page 37, he says, "one of the deepest fears of the human heart – the fear of having a live encounter with alien 'otherness'...  We fear encounters in which the other is free to be itself." To me, this is "navel gazing" of the highest order, and I think would describe only a small percentage of the population.

I resonate strongly with Palmer's ideas on personal integrity, and on being honest to yourself was powerful.  The message is to be yourself and to serve through being who you are.  Do not try to imitate others because what works for them may not work for you if it is at variance with who you are.  On page 5, he says, "Technique is what teachers use until the real teachers arrive." But there is a danger in taking this too far.  There are techniques and proven methods for dealing with certain situations, and to become skilled in applying those methods in no way means you are denying who you are.  The whole idea of mentoring is that one with experience can help another less experienced to make more rapid progress along life's pathway.  Palmer backs away from his blanket taboo on technique, connecting it with mentoring on pages 21-24.  "Mentoring is a mutuality."p21 "Mutual illumination from being willing to explore our inner dynamics with each other."p23 "the proper and powerful role of technique: as we learn more about who we are, we can learn techniques that reveal rather than conceal the personhood from which good teaching comes."p24.

Palmer expresses a number of ideas that puzzle and trouble me.  "I choose life-giving ways of relating to forces that converge within me."p13 He uses the word "forces" repeatedly on this page.  "When we think things together, we reclaim the life force in the world, in our students, in ourselves."p66 Who or what is this force that Palmer keeps referring to? What is the significance of these kinds of references to spirituality for the rest of what he is saying.  On page 20, Palmer quotes Václac Havel, a political leader in the Czech Republic, "The salvation of this human world lies nowhere else than in the human heart…"p20.

On pages 112, 113, Palmer does an intriguing analysis of typical reactions to new ideas.

     It is possible to respond differently to surprises, to allow one new idea to generate yet another in us -- a process sometimes called thinking.  But in a flattened, desacralized culture, thinking is not what happens when we are taken -- or threatened -- by surprise.  Instead, we reflexively defend ourselves by reaching for a weapon that we know how to use, an old idea whose use we mastered long ago.

     To think a new thought in this moment of danger would leave us open and vulnerable, for we do not know what flank it might leave exposed.  So we grab an old idea, a conceptual club we know how to use because we have swung it many times before, and we beat the surprise to death -- or we run away before it can make a mark on our minds.  Startled by otherness, reacting out of fear, we destroy the possibility of learning anything new by allowing the ancient fight or flight syndrome to have its way. p112,113

He then claims , "This reflex is rooted in a million years of evolution, so it may seem inexorable."p113.  Palmer has a section in Chapter IV on the sacred, but it does nothing to remove my concern that his view of spirituality is humanistic.  Perhaps as an illustration of the point he just made about reactions to new ideas, I may unconsciously filter everything else he says through what I believe to be his ungodly concept of spirituality.

Palmer makes a number statements about western thinking that parallel the thinking of other authors.  He refers to "thinking in polarities", "either-or" fragmentation, true and false statements, competition, conflict, and win-win.

     "The culture of disconnection is driven partly by fear, but also by our Western commitment to thinking in polarities."p61

     "Niels Bohr: 'The opposite of a true statement is a false statement, but the opposite of a profound truth can be another profound truth.'"p62

     "Want a richer, more paradoxical model of teaching and learning than binary thought allows."p64

     "to teach is to create a space in which the community of truth is practiced."p95

     "Competition is a secretive, zero-sum game played by individuals for private gain; conflict is open and sometimes raucous but always communal, a public encounter in which it is possible for everyone to win by learning and growing."p103

In Six Thinking Hats, Edward de Bono (1985) describes parallel thinking as opposed to argumentative, confrontational, and adversarial thinking.  Too often, we make decisions in committees based on the best argument, where each party speaks only in favor of its point of view.  "If one party thinks of a point that might benefit the other party, then that point is never raised.  The purpose is to win, not to explore the subject honestly." p9

De Bono uses the mechanism of six colored hats, with each hat representing a different style of thinking.  The aim of this method of parallel thinking is to have everyone thinking from the same perspective at a time, say wearing the White Hat.  Then after a period of time, everyone in the committee 'puts on' the next color hat.  De Bono maintains that there is an "absolute physiological need to separate out the types of thinking...  You cannot be sensitized in different directions at the same time, so when we set out to do all aspects of thinking at the same moment, we are going to be suboptimal on all of them." p12

White Hat Neutral, objective.  The white hat is concerned with objective facts and figures.
Red Hat Suggests anger (seeing red), rage, and emotions.  The red hat gives the emotional view.
Black Hat Somber and serious.  The black hat is cautious and careful.  It points out the weaknesses in an idea.
Yellow Hat Sunny and positive.  The yellow hat is optimistic and covers hope and positive thinking.
Green Hat Grass, vegetation, and abundant, fertile growth.  The green hat indicates creativity and new ideas.
Blue Hat Cool, the color of the sky, which is above everything else.  The blue hat is concerned with control, the organization of the thinking process, and the use of other hats.

Stephen Covey (1998) has also written on the undesirability of thinking and behaving in polarities.  Habit 4 in his The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People is "Think Win/Win".  He believes that when two views are in opposition, that it could very well be that neither view is fully wrong.  If choosing one view as the winner means all the others are losers, then we may not achieve our fullest potential.  The best solution might involve elements of two or more opposing views.

A leader who is successful in achieving Win/Win solutions with her or her team is one who has effective interpersonal leadership skills.  Covey elaborates on five dimensions of Win/Win leadership.

"The principle of Win/Win is fundamental to success in all our interactions, and it embraces five interdependent dimensions of life.  It begins with character and moves toward relationships, out of which flow agreements.  It is nurtured in an environment where structure and systems are based on Win/Win.  And it involves process; we cannot achieve Win/Win ends with Win/Lose or Lose/Win means." p216

Palmer has an interesting approach to the way changes come about in society, and many of the concepts can be applied to change in the corporate setting.

     "Organizations represent the principle of order and conservation: they are the vessels in which a society holds hard-won treasures from the past.  Movements represent the principle of flux and change: they are the processes through which a society channels its energies for renewal and transformation."p164

The four definable stages of a movement:p166

     "Stage 1. Isolated individuals make an inward decision to live 'divided no more,'finding a center for their lives outside of institutions.

     "Stage 2. These individuals begin to discover one another and form communities of congruence that offer mutual support and opportunities to develop a shared vision.

     "Stage 3. These communities start going public, learning to convert their private concerns into the public issues they are and receiving vital critiques in the process.

     "Stage 4. A system of alternative rewards emerges to sustain the movement's vision and to put pressure for change on the standard institutional reward system."

1.3 Multiple Intelligences

I read two authors who have written what are to some extent commentaries on Howard Gardner's (1983) theory of multiple intelligences, with a focus on teaching and the classroom.

Haggerty starts with an account of how the theory of multiple intelligences (or MI theory) was developed.  It resulted from Dr. Howard Gardner's efforts to synthesize two lines of research he was involved in - child development and cognitive breakdown following brain damage.  "Gardner concluded that dealing with different kinds of symbol systems, the different codes that we humans have developed to conceptualize and to convey meaning - linguistic, pictorial, numerical, gestural, and so on - must evolve separate psychological processes.  His findings suggested to him that human cognitive competence actually is pluralistic, rather than unitary, in design.  They suggested, in other words, that intelligence is many, not one." p3.

According to Haggerty, these conclusions challenged the traditional view of intelligence, and led Gardner to propose that "intelligence is 'the ability to solve problems, or create cultural products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings.'" p4.

On pages 4 and 5, Haggerty summarizes Gardner's eight "signs by which to judge whether a particular competence might be considered a human intelligence." Page 4.  Several of these signs list "distinctiveness", relative autonomy", "independent existence" as evidences that enhance the claim that a particular competence is an intelligence.  Another is to be able to use a symbol system to "capture and communicate experiences or information" p5.

Haggerty then illustrates and describes the seven intelligences proposed by Gardner in his 1983 book, Frames of Mind, and on pages 40 to 43, does a tabular analysis.

The Seven Intelligences: A Summary[p40-43]

Intelligence Problem solving skill / Cultural product Core operation or set of operations
Linguistic

Literature and other written products

Oratory and other spoken products

Sensitivity to the meaning of words (semantics); sensitivity to the order among words (syntax); sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections, and meters of words (phonology); sensitivity to the different functions of language (pragmatics)
Musical Music Sensitivity to rhythm; sensitivity to pitch (melody); sensitivity to timbre
Logical-Mathematical

Mathematical calculation

Classification of objects

Discovery of patterns or trends

Abstraction of rules from examples

Discovery of causal relations

Creation and evaluation of hypotheses

Development of scientific theories

Ability to discern logical or numerical patterns; ability to prosecute long chains of reasoning or to handle increasingly abstract tiers of analysis
Spatial

Works of visual art

Architecture

Structures (buildings, bridges, etc.), equipment, engines

Navigation; navigation charts

Maps

Capacity to perceive forms and objects accurately; capacity to manipulate or mentally transform objects and forms perceived and to recognize such transformation; capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform it; capacity to produce a graphic likeness of spatial information; sensitivity to the feelings of tension, balance, and composition that characterize a visual or spatial display
Bodily-Kinesthetic

Dance

Acting

Athletics

Invention and use of tools, including machines

Ability to handle objects skillfully (gross motor movements and fine motor movements); ability to control one's bodily movements in skilled and differentiated ways for functional or expressive purposes
Intrapersonal

Evaluating one's talents and deficiencies

Guiding one's pursuit of a career

Ability to develop a reliable working model of oneself, including one's desires, goals, anxieties, strengths, and problems, and to draw upon that model as a means of understanding and guiding one's behavior
Interpersonal

Teaching

Leading (e.g., in religion, politics)

Managing

Negotiating

Selling

Counseling

Treating mental or emotional illness or disability

Ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals, i.e., to read the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others and to act upon this knowledge

The second edition of Armstrong's book (Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom) was written five years after Haggerty's an includes and eighth intelligence proposed by Gardner - Naturalistic Intelligence.  Armstrong also has a tabular analysis (pp4-6) of the eight intelligences, but with more and different headings.  I have chosen just a couple of them that relate to the columns I extracted from Haggerty's analysis.

Intelligence Ways That Cultures Value Core Components
Naturalist

Folk taxonomies, herbal lore, hunting rituals, animal spirit mythologies

Expertise in distinguishing among members of a species; recognizing the existence of other neighboring species; and charting out the relations, formally or informally, among several species

On pages 3 through 8, Armstrong gives an overview of the theoretical basis for MI theory, describing the "potential isolation by brain damage", "the existence of savants, prodigies, and other exceptional individuals, and references to "developmental history", "psychometric findings", "experimental psychological tasks", "a core set of operations", and "encoding in a symbol system".  Support for the theory is also claimed on the basis of "having its roots deeply embedded in the evolution of human beings"p7. Chapters 2 and 3 include instruments for assessing MI in adults and in students.  The balance of the book is devoted to teaching the eight intelligences in the classroom, and to strategies for utilizing the intelligences in teaching, classroom management, and other classroom situations.

Five Styles of Decision Making

The theory of multiple intelligence provides useful insights into learning aptitudes people might have and the ways in which instructional style might be adapted to maximize the learning experience.  For those in administrative positions in organizations, a model has been proposed that looks at the decision-making styles of executives.  I have used this model to help tailor my own presentations to the decision-making styles of those I am hoping to persuade.

Gary Williams and Robert Miller (2002) have concluded from their research that
 

"executives typically fall into one of five decision-making categories: Charismatics can be initially exuberant about anew idea or proposal but will yield a final decision based on a balanced set of information.  Thinkers can exhibit contradictory points of view within a single meeting and need to cautiously work through all the options before coming to a decision.  Skeptics remain highly suspicious of data that don't fit with their worldwide and make decisions based on their gut feelings.  Followers make decisions based on how other trusted executives, or they themselves, have made similar decisions in the past.  And controllers focus on the pure facts and analytics of a decision because of their own fears and uncertainties.

"The five styles span a wide range of behaviors and characteristics." p65

This is reported in the May 2002 issue of the Harvard Business Review in an article entitled Change the Way You Persuade.  I get the same sense of "lights going on" when I read this article as I imagine would have been the case when the idea of multiple intelligences was first proposed.  "Managers typically use a one-size-fits-all approach when trying to influence their bosses and colleagues.  New research shows that's a mistake.  Persuasion works best when it's tailored to five distinct decision-making styles." p64 "All too often, people make the mistake of focussing too much on the content of their argument and not enough on how they deliver that message." p65

1.4 Faculty Reading List and Other Authors

The remaining books in my Reference List and Bibliography section are from the Reading List suggested by faculty on the Leadership web site, or from searching in indexes and along bookshelves.

1.4.1 Innovations in Education: Reformers and Their Critics

In Chapter 5 of Innovations in Education: Reformers and Their Critics, John Martin Rich (1992) presents some studies on politics, market forces, and decision making in America's schools.  The chapter title is "Politics, Organization, and School Choice".  He reports findings and conclusions from "A Blueprint for Public Education" by John E. Chubb and from "Should Market Forces Control Educational Decision Making?" by Jack Tweedie.  While the thrust of the book is about educational reform, I was interested to compare features of schools that are considered to be effective with effectiveness in the business world.

In commenting on the conclusions of John Chubb and Terry Moe, Rich says, "They found that well-run school's can make a significant difference for students, regardless of their background and ability." (Page 69).  In the business world, customer satisfaction is in the spotlight.  The aim is to serve every customer well and to meet their needs, regardless of how diverse they may be.  "Teachers in effective schools were treated as professionals, whereas in effective schools they were treated as common civil servants." (Page 69).  The parallel to the business world is obvious.  "Effective schools, they observed, experience 20 to 50 percent less interference from superintendents and district-level administrators in areas of curriculum, instruction, and the employment and discharge of teachers." (Page 69).  This suggests a leadership style of trust and empowerment, which many business leaders and thinkers claim are essential elements of successful leadership.

I did a search on my developing portfolio website on the word "openness", since I am interested in the way this may relate to trust and empowerment in business decision making and found a number of references relevant to this issue.  In The Politics of Information, authors Debra Friedman and Phillip H. Hoffman (2001) discovered that placing decision support information out in the open "enabled key academic decision-makers to ask their own questions".

"Because things were now out in the open, they were able both to inspire improved reporting of data and to fix heretofore unknown errors that had accumulated over time.

"During these visits we also made a commitment to train chairs, deans, and their designates to use the database directly.  That, of course, was the true promise of this project: to enable key academic decision-makers to ask their own questions, to model their own futures, to explore solutions to their own problems.  Decentralizing access to information facilitated unit strategic planning, an institutional priority in its own right.[1]"

In Chapter 3 of a draft version of Eileen White's (2002) dissertation that I was privileged to see, the notions of openness and trust were strongly linked to successful program reviews that were based on readily available information.  I have placed a copy of this draft in my portfolio with web links to each of the occurrences of these words or ideas - "program review","openness", "trust", "Information".

In Ken Blanchard's allegory about the Squirrel, the Beaver and the Goose (Gung Ho! Turn on the People in Any Organization), Blanchard mentions that the Way of the Beaver addresses the needs of the individual and his/her relationship to the organization.  This is done through a spirit of honesty and openness.

In an article entitled How Things Change in CIO Magazine by Sandy Kendall (2001), Gary Hamel identifies openness as one of the "new virtues" in this fast moving age.

"In an age where business models decay with surprising speed, a new set of virtues will be required.  These include creativity, imagination, diversity, speed, openness and the capacity for continual right-angle turns."

While the message in Innovations in Education: Reformers and Their Critics is mainly for the teaching profession and educational administrators, Rich's conclusions in Chapter 5 show again that there are certain fundamental principles of operational effectiveness that are common to all kinds of business.

1.4.2 Educating Everybody's Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners

The title of Robert W. Cole's (1995) book (Educating Everybody's Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners), appealed to me in the context of this competency on Instructional management to accommodate individual variability.  While much of the book deals specifically with classroom teaching of children, I found many of the "Baker's Dozen: Effective Instructional Strategies" in chapter 3 to be valuable in many other settings. p23-39

Number
Strategy
1
Provide opportunities to work together
4
Involve students actively
6
Actively model behaviors
7
Explore the fullest dimensions of thought
12
Foster strategies in questioning
13
Emphasize brain-compatible instruction


2. List of References

Armstrong, Thomas. (2000). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom (2nd ed.). (EN-0265)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-87120-376-6.

Blanchard, Ken and Bowles, Sheldon. (1998). Gung Ho! Turn on the People in Any Organization (1st ed.). (EN-0022)
New York: William Morrow and Co, Inc. ISBN: 0-688-15428-X
URL: ...dlh/comps/2b/3pers_mgmt/gungho.htm (note 1; note 2)

Cole, Robert W. (1995). Educating Everybody's Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners. (EN-0415)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-87120-237-9.

Covey, Stephen R. Quoted in the March issue of Bits & Pieces, as saying, "trust is the highest form of human motivation." This was brought out in the WebCT discussion as part of EDUC632 Issues in Education Foundations.

Covey, Stephen R. (1998a). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. (EN-0048)
Melbourne, Australia: The Business Library. ISBN: 1863500294
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0671708635/107-1563148-4595716
http://www.franklincovey.com/training/public/7h_workshop.html

Covey, Stephen R. (1998b). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People® Workshop. (EN-0429)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.franklincovey.com/training/public/7h_workshop.html

de Bono, E. (1985). Six Thinking Hats. (EN-0141)
Ringwood, Australia: Penguin Books. ISBN: 014013784X.

Fried, Louis. (1995). Managing Information Technology in Turbulent Times. (EN-0147)
John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-471-04742-2 (editorial reviews)

Friedman, Debra and Hoffman, Phillip H. (2001). The Politics of Information. (EN-0453)
Change, 33(3), p50 58p.
URL: ...dlh/comps/5b/2qual_res/indiv_project/ThePoliticsOfInformation.htm

Haggerty, Brian A. (1995). Nurturing Intelligences: A Guide to Multiple Intelligences Theory and Teaching. (EN-0416)
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.

Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T. and Smith, Karl A. (1998). Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom. (EN-0027)
Interaction Book Company. ISBN: 0-939603-14-4.

Kagan, Spencer. (1998). Cooperative Learning. (EN-0028)
Resources for Teachers Inc. ISBN: 1-879097-10-9.

Kendall, Sandy. (2001). How Things Change. (EN-0455)
CIO Magazine (Aug 15, 2001).
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.cio.com/archive/081501/change.html (on local server)

Kostner, Jaclyn. (1996). Virtual Leadership: Secrets from the Round Table for the Multi-Site Manager. (EN-0038)
New York: Warner Books. ISBN: 0-446-67087-1 (editorial reviews)

Kotter, John P. (1998). Winning At Change. (EN-0151)
Retrieved 17-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/l2l/fall98/kotter.html (on local server)

Larson, Roland, Larson, Doris and with Gillespie, V. Bailey. (1996). Project Affirmation: Teaching Values. (EN-0030)
La Sierra University Press. ISBN: 0-944450-14-8.

Palmer, Parker J. (1998). The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life. (EN-0044)
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. ISBN: 787910589.

Rich, John Martin. (1992). Innovations in Education - Reformers and their critics (6th ed.). (EN-0409)
Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 0-205-13299-5.

White, Eileen. (2002). Chapter Three Miracosta College. (EN-0454)
Unpublished Ph.D., Andrews University, Berrien Springs.
URL: ...dlh/comps/5b/2qual_res/indiv_project/MiraCostaCollege.htm

Williams, Gary A. and Miller, Robert B. (2002). Change the Way You Persuade. (EN-0456)
Harvard Business Review (May 1), p64 9p.
Retrieved 17-Jun-2004
URL: http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=R0205D


3. Bibliography

Other Recommended Reading

Angelo, Thomas A. and Cross, K. Patricia. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. (EN-0264)
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bonstingl, John. (1992). Schools of Quality: An Introduction to Total Quality Management in Education. (EN-0266)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Cortada, James W. (1998). Best practices in information technology : how corporations get the most value from exploiting their digital investments. (EN-0063)
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN: 0137564465

English, Larry P. (1999). Improving Data Warehouse and Business Information Quality. (EN-0051)
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 0471253839

Gagnon, Gabrielle. (1999). Data Warehousing: An Overview. (EN-0073)
PC Magazine, 18(5), 245.

Harvard Graduate School of Education. The Thinking Classroom: Where Teachers Teach Thinking to Improve Student Learning. ALPS - Active Learning Practices for Schools. (EN-0594)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/ (on local server)

Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T. and Holubec, Edythe Johnson. (1994). The New Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom and School. (EN-0267)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-87120-227-1.

Joyce, Bruce and Weil, Marsha. (1996). Models of Teaching (Fifth edition ed.). (EN-0269)
Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN: 0-205-19391-9.

Kohn, Alfie. (1996). Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community. (EN-0270)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-97120-270-0.

Llewellyn, Grace. (1991). The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How to Quit School and Get a Real Life and Education. (EN-0271)
Eugene, OR: Lowry House Publishers. ISBN: 0-9629591-0-3. (editorial reviews)

Marzano, Robert. (1992). A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning. (EN-0272)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-97120-192-5.

Valentine, Michael. (1987). How to Deal with Discipline Problems In the Schools: A Practical Guide for Educators. (EN-0273)
Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. ISBN: 0-8403-5340-5.


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