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1. An effective teacher/instructor with skills in:
(c) Developing instructional strategies

1c2 Annotated bibliography

` Development Plan Portfolio Documentation
Perform bibliographic research via the web.  Read sections from at least two textbooks on the topic of cooperative learning.

Prepare an annotated bibliography from web search and textbook reading, and reflect on its application to plans for the Technology Task Force and for Data Warehousing.

  1. Notes
    1. Listen Effectively, Be Present, Engage
    2. Applications to Technology Task Force: Technology Training; Group Dynamics
    3. Applications to Data Warehousing
  2. List of References
  3. Bibliography

1. Notes

1.1. Listen Effectively, Be Present, Engage

I have found that an important part of "getting your message across" is establishing a relationship with your audience, and that this is just as true whether the context is the President's Cabinet or a classroom of students.  In my research for this competency, I found an article by Monica Janas (2002) that discusses "resiliency behaviors and characteristics that can be nurtured within a family, school, or agency."  The article is entitled "20 Ways To Build Resiliency" and what I found interesting was how well many of the points made can be applied to leadership in general.

2. Establish close, supportive relationships
3. Communicate realistic standards
5. Use a low-criticism style of interaction
6. Focus on frequent, concrete praise
7. Outline a method of reaching goals with the child
8. Celebrate efforts
11. Develop competencies based on interests
12. Be sensitive to gender-related influences
15. Master a variety of communication strategies
17. Create opportunities for participation with groups
19. Share your humor
20. Model being a resilient adult

In "The human side of teaching: effective listening. guidelines for teachers and school administrators", Stephen Boyd (2001) says,

"Whether you are engaged in teaching, counseling students, or working with store managers or supervisors in companies, a most important people skill is effective listening."

If your audience knows that you are giving them your attention, then they are more likely to pay attention to what you have to say.  This is one of the four principles discovered (re-discovered) by Stephen C. Lundin, John Christensen, and Harry Paul (2000) in the Pike Place Fish Market in Seattle.  Their four principles are:

  1. Choose Your Attitude,
  2. Play,
  3. Make Their Day,
  4. and Be Present

Lundin et al wrote about the transformation that took place in their workplace in a book called "Fish!".  Their fourth principle was to "Be Present".  That is, when serving a customer, consciously engage them so that they know they have your whole attention.  This is a valuable principle to keep in mind in any kind of interpersonal interaction, and is central to one of the fundamentals of leadership, which is to form relationships with those you lead.

1.2 Applications to Technology Task Force: Technology Training; Group Dynamics

I have written about the formation of the Technology Task Force in Competency 4(a), and included some reflections on the task force in Competency 6(e).  The idea of setting up a task force was suggested to me by one of the faculty soon after my orientation to the program in 1998, to address the need for participants to possess are relatively high degree of technical proficiency to be in the program.  At the orientation program for the 2003 cohort, I gave a presentation on technology in the Leadership Program.  In that presentation, I tried to give a context for the technology competency and explain why technology...  To do that, I highlighted the places in the Leadership Program Manual that reference the ways participants will use technology to be participants in the program.  I also gave an overview of typical computer applications that they would use as they progress through the program:
  1. E-mail
  2. Web
    1. Participant Web Site
    2. WebCT
    3. Online research databases
  3. Word Processing
  4. Presentations
  5. Bibliography Management
  6. Indexing Documents and Artifacts
  7. Support for Leadership

Daniel E. Curry-Corcoran and Patrick M. O'Shea (2003)

As I contemplated my experiences attempting to establish a Technology Task Force, and the emails I had written and the presentations I had given on making better use of technology in the program, I found parallels in an article by Curry-Corcoran and O'Shea (2003) in TechTrends called "Now: A Collaboration Reshaping Teacher Technology Training".  One observation that needs to be kept in mind when developing a strategy for this type of learning is that even if you find an approach that works, do not expect it to be effective for a prolonged period.  Technology is changing so rapidly, and the state of knowledge and experience with technology is also changing over time, so you need to be continually developing and refining and reinventing your approach to stay effective as conditions change.

Francis Dwyer (2003)

An article by Francis Dwyer (2003) in International Journal of Instructional Media entitled "Assessing Strategies for Developing Effective and Efficient Text for Distance Education: Traditional and Electronic" is of interest in the area of instructing Leadership participants about the process of being in the program, and how to stay in it, make progress through it, and graduate in a timely manner. 

A characteristic of the program is the degree of freedom that is open to participants to craft an IDP (Individual Development Plan) that is best suited to their needs and situation, while still meeting the requirements of academic rigor.  Dissemination of information about academic requirements and participation requirements for continuing in the program are communicated via personal contact with advisors and other faculty, meetings at annual Roundtable Conferences, and mail (including email).  I have been involved with a web site project for participants with the objective of supplementing the other forms of instruction and communication.  The web site is becoming a repository of forms and manuals that serve to reinforce the message about due process.  It has also served a role in automating some of the processes themselves, such as signing up for classes, registering for Roundtable Conferences, signing off IDP competencies, posting regional group minutes and member attendance, and helping participants to monitor their own progress in the program.

The Dwyer study itself does not really offer anything that is applicable to the further development of the Leadership web site.  It examines the effectiveness of a wide range of variables (such as visualization, questions, note taking, concept mapping, feedback, etc) and their impact on text-based instruction that while these aids "can be embedded in text to improve achievement [they] offer little useful guidance to the designer or practitioner unless they describe these quantitative variables precisely in terms of type of visuals, types of question, types of advance organizers etc. employed and describe the achievement facilitated by these variables to specific types of learning outcomes."

Calling on my rather limited experience actually doing classroom teaching, there was a situation that presented a difficult problem for me.  The problem was how to assign marks fairly to the individual members of a team for group project work.  How do you determine that one student has worked hard and pulled his/her weight while another has made very little contribution to the team?  I have written up the strategies I used to encourage everyone to make a fair contribution to the group effort in GroupProject.htm.

Charles M. Brooks and Janice L. Ammons (2003)

This problem is referred to as the "free-rider" problem or "social loafing" in an article by Brooks and Ammons (2003) in the Journal of Education for Business.  The article is called "Free Riding in Group Projects and the Effects of Timing, Frequency, and Specificity of Criteria in Peer Assessments".  A study was done where the intention was

"to make group experiences more successful by helping students develop the capacity to assess their peers, by deterring a common form of dysfunctional behavior (free riding), and by encouraging reflection on how to improve individual contributions to group projects.  Our results indicate that an evaluation system that provides feedback on specific criteria at both early and multiple points during a group project can reduce free-rider problems and lead students to view group experiences in a more positive light...

Assessment and feedback mechanisms can in themselves be means of providing learning. If the feedback allows students to identify aspects of poor performance and ways to improve it, students can improve their peer evaluations."

I thought it was very interesting that while this study was reported in May/June, 2003, I had been doing something very simi liar with the Software Engineering Group Project course that I taught at Andrews University 11 times from 1998 through 2002 (see GroupProject.htm).

Catherine Jones, Michael Connolly, Anthony Gear and Martin Read (2001)

Jones, Connolly, Gear,and Read (2001, Nov) did a pilot study into the area of group process and associated support technology and the impact on learning experience.  This was reported in the British Journal of Educational Technology in an article entitled "Group interactive learning with group process support technology."  I was interested in the article from several perspectives - the support technology used, because of my background in IT; its application to group process, because of the group software engineering course I taught and also because of the potential I see in group creativity; and finally, the interactive aspect, because I think interacting with and getting involved with the subject matter is a powerful factor in getting buy-in when trying to influence people as well as making any kind learning more durable.

Ali R. Rezaei and Larry Katz (2003)

I found other articles that connected the ideas of using technology in learning in an interactive, collaborative group environment.  One of these was "An Integrated Approach to Collaborative Electronic Learning" by Rezaei and Katz (2003), which was reported in the The Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching.  In this article, the authors "introduce a theoretical framework that could be customized based on the individual teacher's needs and objectives."  The conclusions were largely to set directions for further research, but it was interesting reading how the use of collaboration with teacher and fellow students in a group setting were taken as the starting point for developing a learning framework.

David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson and Karl A. Smith (1998) and Spencer Kagan (1998)

In the summer of 1999, I took a course from Larry Burton called EDCI665 Advanced Instructional Models: Cooperative Learning for Adults.  I wrote it into my IDP as part of Competency 1(b) An effective teacher/instructor with skills in: instructional management to accommodate individual.  I actually think it fits better into this Competency on developing instructional strategies.  Two of the textbooks we used in the course will continue to be excellent resources on group process and collaboration, not only in the classroom, but in the workplace as well.  The books were:

1.3 Applications to Data Warehousing

For me, the main application for developing instructional strategies is in the area of influencing decision making.  My role as CIO is to find ways of adding value to the enterprise that are enabled through the appropriate use of Information Technology.  Then having found ways this can be done, I have to lead the chief decision makers to see the value that IT can add, and give their agreement to the kinds of changes needed to implement those IT initiatives.

I have found some very interesting reading related the area of decision making and factors to be aware of when planning your strategy to obtain the decision you are after.  Williams and Miller (2002) identify Five Styles of Decision Making in their article "Change the Way You Persuade" in the May 2002 issue of the Harvard Business Review.  "Managers typically use a one-size-fits-all approach when trying to influence their bosses and colleagues. New research shows that's a mistake. Persuasion works best when it's tailored to five distinct decision-making styles." p64

I have found it is also important to recognize that different people have different thinking styles and can be stronger in some ways of thinking than in others.  A lot has been written on Howard Garner's (1983) theory of multiple intelligences.  One of those is Thomas Armstrong (2000) in his book "Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom".

One of the authors I especially like on this topic is Daniel Goleman.  Goleman, Boyatzus, and McKee (2002) highlight the powerful role that feelings have to do with decision making on pages 42 through 45 of their book, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence.

Meyers, Meyers and Gelzheiser (2001) did a study of team decision-making productivity and effectiveness.  This was reported in the Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation under the title "Observing Leadership Roles in Shared Decision Making: A Preliminary Analysis of Three Teams".  One factor that was found to be important in implementing share decision making was "establishing a shared vision".  So if you want people to be creative and innovative and learn new and ways of doing new things, one strategy for fostering this is to include them in the process of defining values, mission, and vision.


2. List of References

Armstrong, Thomas. (2000). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom (2nd ed.). (EN-0265)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-87120-376-6

Boyd, Stephen D. (2001, Oct). The human side of teaching: effective listening. guidelines for teachers and school administrators. Techniques (Association for Career and Technical Education), 76, p. 60. (EN-0910)
URL: (on local server)

Brooks, Charles M. and Ammons, Janice L. (2003, May/Jun). Free Riding in Group Projects and the Effects of Timing, Frequency, and Specificity of Criteria in Peer Assessments. Journal of Education for Business, 78, p268, 265p. (EN-0906)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10708702&db=afh
(on local server)

Curry-Corcoran, Daniel E. and O'Shea, Patrick M. (2003, May/June). ACTT Now: A Collaboration Reshaping Teacher Technology Training. TechTrends, 47, 16-19. (EN-0902)
URL: (on local server)

Dwyer, Francis. (2003). Assessing Strategies for Developing Effective and Efficient Text for Distance Education: Traditional and Electronic. International Journal of Instructional Media, 30, 11-23. (EN-0903)
URL: (on local server)

Goleman, Daniel, Boyatzus, Richard and McKee, Annie. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. (EN-0743)
Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. ISBN: 1-57851-486-X (editorial reviews) (excerpts)

Janas, Monica. (2002, Nov). 20 Ways To Build Resiliency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38, p. 117-121. (EN-0909)
URL: (on local server)

Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T. and Smith, Karl A. (1998). Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom. (EN-0027)
Interaction Book Company. ISBN: 0-939603-14-4.

Jones, Catherine, Connolly, Michael, Gear, Anthony and Read, Martin. (2001, Nov). Group interactive learning with group process support technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, p571, 515p. (EN-0908)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=5486904&db=afh
(on local server)

Kagan, Spencer. (1998). Cooperative Learning. (EN-0028)
Resources for Teachers Inc. ISBN: 1-879097-10-9.

Lundin, Stephen C., Paul, Harry and Christensen, John. (2000). Fish! A Remarkable Way to Boost Morale and Improve Results (EN-0671)
Hyperion. ISBN: 0-7868-6602-0 (editorial reviews)

Meyers, Barbara, Meyers, Joel and Gelzheiser, Lynn. (2001). Observing Leadership Roles in Shared Decision Making: A Preliminary Analysis of Three Teams. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 12, p277, 36p. (EN-0911)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=6677358&db=afh
(on local server)

Rezaei, Ali R. and Katz, Larry. (2003). An Integrated Approach to Collaborative Electronic Learning. (EN-0888)
The Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 22(1), p57-73.
URL: (on local server)

Williams, Gary A. and Miller, Robert B. (2002). Change the Way You Persuade. (EN-0456)
Harvard Business Review (May 1), p64 9p.
Retrieved 17-Jun-2004
URL: http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=R0205D

3. Bibliography

Other Recommended Reading

Ellis, Arthur K. (2000). Research on Educational Innovations (3rd ed.). (EN-0862)
Princeton, NJ: Eye on Education Incorporated.

Jarvis, P. (Ed.). (2002). The theory and practice of teaching. (EN-0794)
London: Kogan Page.

Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T. and Holubec, Edythe Johnson. (1994). The New Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom and School. (EN-0267)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). ISBN: 0-87120-227-1

Johnson, David. W. and Johnson, Roger. T. (1998). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (5th ed.). (EN-0795)
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Joyce, Bruce R., Weil, Marsha and Calhoun, Emily. (2003). Models of Teaching (7th ed.). (EN-0269)
Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN: 0205389279.


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Last Modified: Tuesday, February 7, 2012 11:04 AM