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4. A collaborative consultant with skills in:
(c) Problem-solving and decision-making

4c2 Bibliography and Reflections on Reading

Development Plan Portfolio Documentation
Maintain currency in leadership and technology management by reading appropriate books and journals. Reflect on reading and describe its application to problem-solving and decision-making in ITS.
  1. Reflections on Reading
    1. The Roles Of Intuition And Reason
    2. Influencing Decision Making In Others
    3. Research On The Application Of Data Warehousing To Decision Support
    4. Observations On Other Reading
  2. List of References
  3. Bibliography

1. Reflections on Reading

1.1 The Roles Of Intuition And Reason

My first introduction to emotional intelligence was in 1999 at a one-day seminar put together by Lessons In Leadership, where Dr. Robert Cooper was the presenter.  Cooper (1997) has written a book on the subject called "Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations", which added to my understanding of the important role of emotional intelligence in leadership.

Then in May, 2003, I began reading "Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzus, and Annie McKee (2002).  I had read some of Goleman's 1995 book "Emotional Intelligence", but I found was captivated by what I was reading in 'Primal Leadership", so much so that I wrote out many of the passages I found interesting so I could refer back to them easily online.  It had relevance to many aspects of leadership, but I was particularly interested in physiological explanation Goleman gives for the relationship between decision making and emotion.

As Goleman describes, good decisions have an emotional as well as a rational aspect.

"...Because attuning our feelings, according to neurological research, helps us to find the meaning in data, and so leads to better decisions. Our emotional memory banks thus enable us to judge information efficiently. Emotions, science now tells us, are part of rationality, not opposed to it." p42

"Intuition works best, it seems, when a gut sense can be used to build on other kinds of data." p43

"The brain constantly registers decision rules about what works and what doesn't: ... the brain soaks up life's lessons to better prepare us for the next time we face a similar challenge, uncertainty, or decision point." p44

"... leaders need to learn to trust their intuitive sense to access their life wisdom. The circuitry involved in puzzling decisions, in fact, includes not just the basal ganglia, but also the amygdala, where the brain stores the emotions associated with memories." p44

"...brain automatically extracts the decision rules that underlie one turn of events or another, or the operating cause-and-effect sequences." p44

"Accordingly, the brain won't inform us of these judgments with words; instead, the emotional brain activates circuitry that runs from the limbic centers into the gut, giving us the compelling sense that this feels right. The amygdala, then, lets us know its conclusions primarily through circuitry extending into the gastrointestinal tract that, literally, creates a gut feeling." p44

"In short, intuition offers EI leaders a direct pipeline to their accumulated life wisdom on a topic. And it takes the inner attunement of self-awareness to sense that meaning." p45

This has given me some very valuable insights, since I am planning for my dissertation to be in the area of fact-based decision making supported by data warehousing.  I might not have given proper credence to the part that emotion plays in decision making had I not read this book.  At the same time, I was very well aware from other experiences I had had in attempting to influence decision making that there are other powerful forces at work beside the 'bare facts'.  This was illustrated, tongue-in-cheek, by the thought for the day written on the whiteboard in the staff room where I work, "Don't let the facts get in the way of a good decision."  I knew it was intended in humor, but all the same it made me cringe when I saw it.

I guess the important lesson I have learned in reading "Primal Leadership", as it relates to decision making, is that gut feel and intuition should not be ignored when making decisions.  But at the same time, it can be a big mistake to ignore facts and make decisions solely on the basis of intuition.  See the highlighted statement above from page 43.

"Primal Leadership" is published by Harvard Business Publishing.  I found it quite interesting to see that in the May, 2003 issue of the Harvard Business Review, by the same publisher, there is an article by Eric Bonabeau (2003, May) called "Don't Trust Your Gut".  Bonabeau is sounding a loud note of caution about putting too much trust in intuition.  He makes no reference to the Goleman, et al, book, but does mention Gary Klein and his book "Intuition at Work".  Bonabeau quotes Klein as saying that "intuition is 'at the center of the decision-making process' and that analysis is, at best, 'a supporting tool for making intuitive decisions.'".  Bonabeau raises a consideration about the reliability of intuition that anyone who has read David Hutchens (1999) book "Shadows of the Neanderthal: Illuminating the Beliefs That Limit Our Organizations" would be very familiar with.  Information stored in our "emotional memory banks" is subject to our preconceptions and mental models of reality.  What we observe is filtered by what we think we should be seeing, and what we remember about the outcome from a certain decision could be very different from what someone with different life experiences remembers.

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign offers their students a "university" version of an online assessment tool - the ECI-U - Emotional Competency Inventory - University Edition, in association with the HayGroup.  To take the ECI-U test, you need to have a student login at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  HayGroup also has a a sample test that anyone can take online.  The university web site includes notes on emotional competency development.

While working at Hewlett-Packard in the '80s in as an Applications Engineer supporting HP's financial and office productivity software, I was privileged to attend a number of personal development training programs coordinated by their  very active Human Resources department.  One of these seminars taught us the Kepner-Tregoe method of problem solving and decision making, developed by Charles H. Kepner and Benjamin B. Tregoe (1981).

In Jaclyn Kostner's (1996) book, "Virtual Leadership: Secrets from the Round Table for the Multi-Site Manager", a powerful allegory is presented for a democratic model for decision making.  At the round table, every person's vote is equal, including that of the king.

The Accel-Team talk about needing to have information and time in order to reach optimum decisions, but since this rarely happens practice, what generally occurs is that a 'satisficing' decision is arrived at, "in effect, a satisfactory compromise under the real conditions prevailing in the management 'arena'." (under section 2.The theorists and their theories).

In my research for competency 6(b) Theories of learning and human development, I came across an area of research called Counterfactual Thinking.  David R. Mandel, Denis Hilton, and Patrizia Catellani. (2001) report on an EAESP Small Group Meeting on Counterfactual Thinking held in France, May 16-18, 2001.  They describe counterfactual thinking as follows:

"Counterfactual thinking involves bringing to mind ways in which past events might have happened differently."

The summary of the Small Group Meeting contains a number of references to the relationship between counterfactual thinking and decision making.

"A closely related topic concerns the influence of counterfactual thinking on judgment (e.g., assessments of culpability and compensation in social and legal contexts) and decision making (e.g., effects on future strategy selection and on choice)."

"Given the important consequences of counterfactual thinking for attribution, judgment and decision making, and emotional forecasting and response, the research has branched out into new areas of interdisciplinary concern, such as world politics, economics, marketing, legal philosophy, and cognitive science."

"The past 15 years have witnessed an increasing number of studies on counterfactual thinking, that is thinking of how past events might have happened differently. Counterfactuals are often generated in everyday life, especially to undo negative outcomes, but they are also frequent in more specialised fields, such as legal reasoning. Research on this issue has contributed to several traditional topics of social psychology, such as attributional thinking, judgment, and decision making. Recently, it has been extended to various areas of interdisciplinary concern, such as politics, history and economics."

In Six Thinking Hats, Edward de Bono. (1985) proposes a novel approach to group decision making.  He uses the device of six colored hats to control the type of thinking that is done at different points during a decision making meeting, such objective facts (white), creative (green), pros or optimistic (yellow), cons or pessimistic (black), feelings and emotions (red), and adherence to process (blue).  Rather than choosing one proposal in its entirety over another proposal that may include some very desirable elements, this approach allows the best possible solution to be melded together using contributions from the whole team.

In Chapter 7 of Research on Educational Innovations by Arthur Ellis & Jeffrey Fouts. (1997), "Thinking Skills Programs", the authors describe a "A Taxonomy of Thinking Skills" adapted from B. K. Beyer (1988). (page 93).  The first two of their three Thinking Strategies in this taxonomy are Problem Solving and Decision Making.

I. Thinking Strategies
Problem Solving
1.
Recognize a problem
2.
Represent the problem
3.
Devise / choose solution plan
4.
Execute the plan
5.
Evaluate the solution
Decision Making
1.
Define the goal
2.
Identify alternatives
.3.
Analyze alternatives
4.
Rank alternatives
5.
Judge highest-ranked alternatives
6.
Choose "best" alternative

1.2 Influencing Decision Making In Others

The theory of multiple intelligence provides useful insights into learning aptitudes people might have and the ways in which instructional style might be adapted to maximize the learning experience.  For those in administrative positions in organizations, a model has been proposed that looks at the decision-making styles of executives.  I have used this model to help tailor my own presentations to the decision-making styles of those I am hoping to persuade.  Gary Williams and Robert Miller (2002) have concluded from their research that

"executives typically fall into one of five decision-making categories: Charismatics can be initially exuberant about anew idea or proposal but will yield a final decision based on a balanced set of information.  Thinkers can exhibit contradictory points of view within a single meeting and need to cautiously work through all the options before coming to a decision.  Skeptics remain highly suspicious of data that don't fit with their worldwide and make decisions based on their gut feelings.  Followers make decisions based on how other trusted executives, or they themselves, have made similar decisions in the past.  And controllers focus on the pure facts and analytics of a decision because of their own fears and uncertainties.

"The five styles span a wide range of behaviors and characteristics." p65

This is reported in the May 2002 issue of the Harvard Business Review in an article entitled Change the Way You Persuade.  I get the same sense of "lights going on" when I read this article as I imagine would have been the case when the idea of multiple intelligences was first proposed.  "Managers typically use a one-size-fits-all approach when trying to influence their bosses and colleagues.  New research shows that's a mistake.  Persuasion works best when it's tailored to five distinct decision-making styles." p64 "All too often, people make the mistake of focusing too much on the content of their argument and not enough on how they deliver that message." p65

1.3 Research On The Application Of Data Warehousing To Decision Support

In my search for dissertation abstracts for EDRM605 Introduction to Qualitative Research, I compiled a detailed list of dissertations having to do with research into data warehousing.  I was most eager to find those that were studying the effects of data warehousing on change and business improvement through improved decision support, but found that kind of research to be virtually nonexistent. The following table summarizes the abstracts that came the nearest to having something to do with decision support.

Author Chen, Shiuhlon
Year 1997
Title D4 an Integrated Architecture of Data Mining, a Data Warehouse, Distributed Databases and Distributed Computation (Decision Support Systems, MIS, Internet, Data Acquisition, Knowledge Deployment)
University The University Of Mississippi
Thesis Type Ph.D.
Theme "Data mining is a useful technique to discover the hidden pattern or relationship among data. Thus, a decision model can be built upon the findings."
Author Haley, Barbara Jean
Year 1997
Title Implementing the Decision Support Infrastructure: Key Success Factors in Data Warehousing (Information Technology)
University University Of Georgia
Thesis Type Ph.D.
Theme "This study examined the effects of three groups of implementation factors on the success of data warehousing implementation. Two survey instruments were developed to measure implementation factors and success factors"
Author Hirji, Karim Khan
Year 1996
Title Information Processing, Enabling Technology and Coordination Modeling in Complex Systems: the Case of Data Warehousing
University University Of Waterloo (Canada)
Thesis Type M.A.Sc.
Theme "The purpose of this thesis is to understand how organizational information requirements have changed, and the nature, definition, and specification of the resulting architected environment that supports enterprise-wide information processing."
Author John, George Harrison
Year 1997
Title Enhancements to the Data Mining Process (Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, Stock Selection)
University Stanford University
Thesis Type Ph.D.
Theme "This thesis describes the data mining process and presents advances and novel methods for the six steps in the data mining process"
Author Kim, Hyeoncheol
Year 1998
Title Knowledge Discovery: a Neural Network Approach (Rule Extraction)
University University Of Florida
Thesis Type Ph.D.
Theme "Recently, there has been much research on rule extraction from neural networks. One of the major problems investigated is reduction of rule search space. Several heuristics based on the KnowledgeTron algorithm have been introduced to reduce the search space."
Author Little, Robert Grover Jr
Year 1998
Title Identification of Factors Affecting the Implementation of Data Warehousing (Firms, Decision-Making)
University Auburn University
Thesis Type Ph.D.
Theme "Many firms have turned to data warehousing to assist in making decisions about the changes needed. ... At the individual level of analysis, the study identified nine significant factors that actually impacted the implementation of data warehousing and eight significant factors that reflect the team members' perceptions of what should have impacted the implementation process."
Author Park, Yong-Tae
Year 1999
Title The Effects of Data Warehousing (DW) As a DSS Database Component On Decision Performance: an Experimental Study of DW in DSS Contexts (Decision Support Systems)
University The Claremont Graduate University
Thesis Type Ph.D.
Theme "To examine the effects of DW on decision performance"

In addition to the dissertation abstracts, I located a couple of useful books on data warehousing.  One is the classic by William H. Inmon and Richard D. Hackathorn. (1994), "Using the data warehouse".  Bill Inmon is known as the "father of data warehousing".  Another book focusing specifically on using data ware housing for decision support is Decision Support in the Data Warehouse by Paul Gray and Hugh J. Watson. (1998).


1.4 Observations On Other Reading

For completeness, I am including other authors here that I have referenced elsewhere in my portfolio.

Analytical Hierarchical Process

See my notes in 4c1 Application to significant technical issues, Section 1.6.

Decision Tables

See my notes in 4c1 Application to significant technical issues, Section 1.2.

Decision Making in IT

See my notes in 4c1 Application to significant technical issues, Section 2.3, Section 1.5, and Section 2.2.

Other Readings

Roger and Stephen Allen (1998) borrow from the story of Winnie-the-Pooh to present their approach to Problem Solving in "Winnie-the-Pooh on Management & Problem Solving".  They have a methodology that is represented by the acronym SOLVE.
Select the Problem or Situation
  Observe, Organize, and Define the Problem or Situation
  Learn by Questioning All Parts of the Problem
  Visualize Possible Solutions, Select One, and Refine It
  Employ the Solution and Monitor Results

In the April 2001 issue of the Harvard Business Review, starting on page 74, Ram Charan (2001, April 2001) points out the business culture aspects of decision making in an article entitled "Conquering a Culture of Indecision".

HBR Abstract of this article

"The single greatest cause of corporate underperformance is the failure to execute. Author Ram Charan, drawing on a quarter century of observing organizational behavior, perceives that such failures of execution share a family resemblance: a misfire in the personal interactions that are supposed to produce results. Faulty interactions rarely occur in isolation, Charan says. Far more often, they're typical of the way large and small decisions are made or not made throughout the organization. The inability to take decisive action is rooted in a company's culture. But, Charan notes, leaders create a culture of indecisiveness, and leaders can break it. Breaking it requires them to take three actions. First, they must engender intellectual honesty in the connections between people. Second, they must see to it that the organization's "social operating mechanisms"--the meetings, reviews, and other situations through which people in the corporation do business--have honest dialogue at their cores. And third, leaders must ensure that feedback and follow-through are used to reward high achievers, coach those who are struggling, and discourage those whose behaviors are blocking the organization's progress. By taking these three approaches and using every encounter as an opportunity to model open and honest dialogue, a leader can set the tone for an organization, moving it from paralysis to action."

In a 2001 article in Change Magazine entitled "The Politics of Information", Debra Friedman and Phillip H. Hoffman. (2001) highlight, among other things, the need for openness, trust, and participation in order to have quality collaborative decision making.

Tom Heaney (1995, June 20) wrote an article in Thresholds in Education entitled "Issues in Freirean Pedagogy", and in the glossary of terms used by Paulo Freire at the end of the article, there is this entry for Consensual Governance:

"Decision-making by consensus requires the discussion of issues until all are in agreement--this in contrast to decision-making by voting in which rule by the majority is imposed on those who dissent. Decision-making by consensus is time consuming and difficult. At times, consensus represents the willingness of a minority "not to oppose" a decision, but the ultimate benefit of this model is that no one is excluded by a decision. This model is characteristic of participatory democracies as occasionally exemplified in U.S. history by the town hall meeting."


2. List of References

Accel-Team.com. (2001, 2001). Motivation Theory And Practice [Web]. (EN-0718)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html
(on local server)

Allen, Roger E. and Allen, Stephen D. (1998). Winnie-the-Pooh on Management & Problem Solving. (EN-0049)
London: Methuen. ISBN: 041619513X

Bonabeau, Eric. (2003, May). Don't Trust Your Gut. Harvard Business Review. (EN-0764)
URL: (on local server)

Charan, Ram. (2001, April 2001). Conquering a Culture of Indecision. Harvard Business Review, p74. (EN-0676)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=R0104D
(on local server)

Chen, Shiuhlon. (1997). D4: an Integrated Architecture of Data Mining, a Data Warehouse, Distributed Databases and Distributed Computation (Decision Support Systems, Mis, Internet, Data Acquisition, Knowledge Deployment). (EN-0065)
Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Mississippi.

Cooper, Robert. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations. (EN-0157)
Grosset/Putnam. ISBN: 0399142940

Davolt, Steve. (2000, August 4, 2000). The man who knew too much. Washington Business Journal. (EN-0746)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2000/08/07/smallb1.html

de Bono, Edward. (1985). Six Thinking Hats. (EN-0141)
Ringwood, Australia: Penguin Books. ISBN: 014013784X

de Wilde, Marien. (2002). Decision Tables [PowerPoint]. (EN-0751)
Retrieved 18-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.sqnz.org.nz/documents/Decision%20Table%20training%20session.ppt (on local server)

Dwyer, Barry. How to Write Cope Decision Tables [Web]. (EN-0750)
Retrieved 18-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www.cs.adelaide.edu.au/users/dwyer/COPE-MAN.html

Ellis, Arthur & Fouts, Jeffrey. (1997). Research on Educational Innovations. (EN-0042)
Second Edition. Princeton Junction, NJ. Eye on Education Publishers. ISBN: 1-883001-05-6.

Federal CIO Council Best Practices Committee. (2002). A Summary of First Practices and Lessons Learned in Information Technology Portfolio Management [pdf]. (EN-0752)
Retrieved April 12, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.cio.gov/documents/BPC_portfolio_final.pdf
(on local server)

Forman, Ernest H. (2003). Expert Choice [Web]. (EN-0744)
Retrieved 18-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www.expertchoice.com/

Friedman, Debra and Hoffman, Phillip H. (2001). The Politics of Information. (EN-0453)
Change, 33(3), p50 58p.
URL: on local server

Goleman, Daniel, Boyatzus, Richard and McKee, Annie. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. (EN-0743)
Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. ISBN: 1-57851-486-X (editorial reviews)

Gray, Paul and Watson, Hugh J. (1998). Decision Support in the Data Warehouse. (EN-0013)
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0137960794
Retrieved 20-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0137960794/qid=935963458/sr=1-2/002-6604344-2126820 (editorial reviews)

Haley, Barbara Jean. (1997). Implementing the Decision Support Infrastructure: Key Success Factors in Data Warehousing (Information Technology). (EN-0066)
Unpublished Ph.D., University of Georgia.

HayGroup. Emotional Intelligence Quiz [Web]. (EN-0755)
Retrieved 20-Jun- 2004
URL: http://ei.haygroup.com/resources/default_ieitest.htm

Heaney, Tom. (1995, June 20). Issues in Freirean Pedagogy. (EN-0687)
Retrieved 20-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www3.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/resources/Documents/FreireIssues.cfm

Hirji, Karim Khan. (1996). Information Processing, Enabling Technology and Coordination Modeling in Complex Systems: the Case of Data Warehousing. (EN-0107)
Unpublished Masters.

Hutchens, David. (1999). Shadows of the Neanderthal: Illuminating the Beliefs That Limit Our Organizations. (EN-0140)
Waltham, MA: Pegasus Communications. ISBN: 1883823307

Inmon, William H. and Hackathorn, Richard D. (1994). Using the data warehouse. (EN-0014)
New York: Wiley. ISBN: 0471059668 (acid-free paper)

John, George Harrison. (1997). Enhancements to the Data Mining Process (Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, Stock Selection). (EN-0106)
Unpublished Ph.D.

Kepner, Charles H. and Tregoe, Benjamin B. (1981). The New Rational Manager. (EN-0041)
Princeton: Princeton Research Press. ISBN: 8084367
Retrieved 18-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www.kepner-tregoe.com/

Kim, Hyeoncheol. (1998). Knowledge Discovery: a Neural Network Approach (Rule Extraction). (EN-0119)
Unpublished Ph.D.

Kostner, Jaclyn. (1996). Virtual Leadership: Secrets from the Round Table for the Multi-Site Manager. (EN-0038)
New York: Warner Books. ISBN: 0-446-67087-1 (editorial reviews)

Laudon, Kenneth C. and Laudon, Jane Price. (2002). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (7th ed.). (EN-0745)
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. ISBN: 0130330663 (editorial reviews)

Little, Robert Grover Jr. (1998). Identification of Factors Affecting the Implementation of Data Warehousing (Firms, Decision-Making). (EN-0100)
Unpublished Ph.D.

Mandel, David R., Hilton, Denis and Catellani, Patrizia. (2001). EAESP Small Group Meeting on Counterfactual Thinking. (EN-0602)
Retrieved 20-Jun- 2004
URL: http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/dmandel/aix.html
(one local server)

Moisiadis, Frank. (2002, October). The Fundamentals of Prioritizing Requirements. (EN-0762)
Paper presented at the Test & Evaluation Conference,, Sydney, Australia.
Retrieved 18-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www.seecforum.unisa.edu.au/SETE2002/ProceedingsDocs/05P-Moisiadis.pdf
(on local server)

Park, Yong-Tae. (1999). The Effects of Data Warehousing (DW) As a DSS Database Component On Decision Performance: an Experimental Study of DW in DSS Contexts (Decision Support Systems). (EN-0093)
Unpublished Ph.D.

Raisinghani, Mahesh (Mike) S. and Schkade, Lawrence L. Strategic Decision Making: A Framework For Multicriteria Decision Analysis Of Technology Investments And A Field Survey [Web]. (EN-0763)
Retrieved May 18, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://hsb.baylor.edu/ramsower/ais.ac.97/papers/raising2.htm

Smith, Paul. (2003, April). Cooking With Gas: How To Make Your I.T. Projects Sizzle. Managing Information Strategies, p42. (EN-0754)
Retrieved 18-Jun- 2004
URL: http://www.misweb.com/magarticle.asp?doc_id=21605&rgid=2&listed_months=0
(on local server)

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ECI-U: Relationship Management [Web]. (EN-0760)
Retrieved May 8, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.illinoisleadership.uiuc.edu/eci-u/cluster/cluster4.asp

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ECI-U: Self-Awareness [Web]. (EN-0757)
Retrieved May 8, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.illinoisleadership.uiuc.edu/eci-u/cluster/cluster1.asp

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ECI-U: Self-Management [Web]. (EN-0758)
Retrieved May 8, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.illinoisleadership.uiuc.edu/eci-u/cluster/cluster2.asp

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ECI-U: Social Awareness [Web]. (EN-0759)
Retrieved May 8, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.illinoisleadership.uiuc.edu/eci-u/cluster/cluster3.asp

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Emotional Competence Inventory University Edition [Web]. (EN-0756)
Retrieved May 8, 2003 (not found on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.illinoisleadership.uiuc.edu/eci-u/default.asp

Washington State Department of Information Services. (2002, April 2002). Information Technology Portfolio Management Standards [Web]. (EN-0753)
Retrieved 18-Jun- 2004
URL: http://dis.wa.gov/portfolio/html%20files/itportfoliomanagementstandards.htm

Wheatley, Margaret J. (1994). Leadership and the New Science: Learning About Organization From an Orderly Universe. (EN-0034)
San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc. ISBN: 1-881052-01-X (hardcover); 1-881052-44-3 (paperback) (editorial reviews)

Williams, Gary A. and Miller, Robert B. (2002). Change the Way You Persuade. (EN-0456)
Harvard Business Review (May 1), p64 9p.
Retrieved 17-Jun-2004
URL: http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=R0205D

3. Bibliography

Other Recommended Reading

Block, Peter. (1982). Flawless Consulting: A Guide to Getting Your Expertise Used (Second Edition ed.). (EN-0308)
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (editorial reviews)

Dougherty, A. Michael. (1995). Consultation: Practice and Perspectives in School and Community Settings (Second Edition ed.). (EN-0309)
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. ISBN: 0-534-25128-5 (editorial reviews)

Jones, Beau Fly, Rasmussen, Claudette M. and Moffitt, Mary C. (Eds.). (1997). Real-Life Problem Solving: A Collaborative Approach to Interdisciplinary Learning. (EN-0710): American Psychological Association. ISBN: 1557982945
URL: ../6a/1educ_fndns/freed_readings/educ632_3.9.htm (editorial reviews)

Klein, Michel and Methlie, Leif B. (1995). Knowledge-based decision support systems : with applications in business (2nd ed.).(EN-0015)
Chichester, England ; New York: Wiley. ISBN: 0471952958

Millman, Howard. (1998). Leveraging Web portals. InfoWorld, 20(52/01), 43. (EN-0087)

O*Brien, James A. (1999). Management information systems : managing information technology in the internetworked enterprise (4th ed.). (EN-0056)
Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 0072906111

Palvia, Prashant C. and Basu, Sujovit Choton. (1999). Information systems management issues: Reporting and relevance. Decision Sciences, 30(1), 273. (EN-0084)

Poe, Vidette, Klauer, Patricia and Brobst, Stephen. (1998). Building a data warehouse for decision support (2nd ed.). (EN-0020)
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN: 0137696396

Poe, Vidette and Reeves, Laura L. (1997). Building a data warehouse for decision support. (EN-0012)
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN: 0135906628

Rosenfield, Sylvia A. (1987). Instructional Consultation. (EN-0311)
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN: 0-8058-0014-X

Rosenfield, Sylvia A. and Gravois, Todd A. (1996). Instructional Consultation Teams: Collaborating for Change. (EN-0292)
New York: The Guildford Press. ISBN: 1-57230-013-2 (editorial reviews)

Simmons, Wayne A. (1998). Decision Support Is Driving Asset Mgm't. Internetweek, 738(p43), 1/3p. (EN-0086)

Stohr, Edward A. and Konsynski, Benn R. (1992). Information systems and decision processes. (EN-0054)
Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN: 0-8186-2802-2 (casebound); 0-8186-2801-4 (microfiche)

Thierauf, Robert J. (1999). Knowledge management systems for business. (EN-0064)
Westport, Conn.: Quorum. ISBN: 1567202187 (alk. paper)

Velayas, James Michael. (1992). Strategic Management Decision Support For A Firm In Pursuit Of The Displaced Ideal Utilizing Data Envelopment Analysis And Entropy. (EN-0137)
Unpublished Ph.D.

Walvoord, Barabara. (1998). Effective Grading : A Tool for Learning and Assessment (First Edition ed.). (EN-0313)
Jossey-Bass Publishers: 787940305. (editorial reviews)

Wheatley, Margaret J. (2002). Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope to the future. (EN-0819)
San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Wheatley, Margaret J. (1994). Leadership and the New Science: Learning About Organization From an Orderly Universe. (EN-0034)
San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc. ISBN: 1-881052-01-X (hardcover); 1-881052-44-3 (paperback) (editorial reviews)


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Created: Sunday, February 20, 2000 05:43 PM
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