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6. A competent scholar with a working knowledge of:
(a) Educational foundations

6a2 Annotated bibliography and Personal Philosophy

Development Plan Portfolio Documentation
Read selected books and articles by leading authors in this area. Include an annotated bibliography and present my personal philosophy as it relates to my working experiences.
  1. Notes
  2. My Personal Philosophy
  3. Selected Readings
    1. Participation, Silence, Choice, Apathy
    2. Big Questions
    3. Problem Based Learning
    4. Learning Organizations
    5. Who are our students? and Lifelong Learning
    6. Private or public, decentralize or centralize?
  4. List of References
  5. Bibliography
  6. Footnotes

1. Notes

bn.com customers who bought this book also bought:
A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning, Robert J. Marzano
Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage, Paulo Freire, Foreword by Stanley Aronowitz
Dewey on Education, Martin Dworkin

On page 24 in the 1976 edition of Philosophical Foundations of Education, Ozmon and Craver describe Saint Augustine's understanding of truth in terms that are echoed almost literally in the School of Education conceptual framework - "Educar es Redimir".

"Saint Augustine thought that truth was inherent in the soul of man. Education was the process of bringing these truths to the surface, and since many of these truths were directly related to God, education was the process of salvation."[1]

Ozmon and Craver provide a very readable analysis of each of the different philosophies of education -- Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, Reconstructionism, Behaviorism, Existentialism, and Analytic Philosophy. They outline the historical development and summarize the ideas of the major thinkers for each philosophy. They relate each philosophy to the prevailing worldview, and offer a critique on its influence on education.


2. My Personal Philosophy

As Ozmon and Craver put it, idealism as a philosophy of education has a "concern for perennial and ultimate truths".[2] They say that while "for the realist, matter is real"[3], idealists generally "hold the notion that ideas are the only true reality".[4]

But what is reality and what is truth? If we accept the existence of God, and the Bible as His Word, then we must conclude that there is a greater reality than the material world. This is made unmistakably clear in 2 Corinthians 4:18 (NIV): "So we fix our eyes not on what is seen, but on what is unseen. For what is seen is temporary, but what is unseen is eternal." A correct understanding of this "truth" has eternal consequences, because what we can see and touch is transitory. The "real" world is one we cannot see with our eyes, but in that other reality, spiritual battles are being fought. As Paul says in Ephesians 6:12 (KJV) "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." Eternal destinies are decided by the way we relate to the unseen spiritual world.

For me, all education, and for that matter, all work and the purpose of all existence, is to do God's will. This is what Jesus taught us in the model prayer, "After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven." (Matthew 6:9-10 KJV) And it is certainly what Jesus modeled when He faced the supreme test in Gesthemane, "Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done." (Luke 22:42 KJV).

And what is God's will? He wants everyone to come to Him, repent, and be saved. "The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance." (2 Pet 3:9 KJV). An when we come to Him, He wants us to serve Him and society. This highlights a third pillar in a Christian perspective on the philosophy of education. In addition to reality and truth, there is value. As Knight says on page 241, "one of the essentials of Christian education is that it build upon a Christian view of reality, truth, and value."[5]

How do I relate this to my role in the physical realm? Well in the first place, I care about the welfare of the people on my team. Ken Blanchard comes across as a person who genuinely cares about the well-being of other people, and in 1994 in a satellite downlink seminar, I heard him say that "the three most important goals of any operation should be customers, employees, profit, in that order. Taking care of the first two is a prequisite for doing well in the third."[6] A natural consequence of a Christian worldview should be that a Christian organization takes good care of its people, but sadly, this is not always so.

In the second place, the binary notion of truth and falsehood seems to parallel the binary number system that is the basis of all computing. Every "bit" (binary digit) of information held in a computer is either 1or 0, true or false. This is the environment in which I have spent my entire working life. But this does not mean I am a black and white person, with no shades of gray (at least, I don't think so). My undergraduate degree is a Bachelor of Science from London University, and this taught me that a conclusion cannot be reached if there is insufficient information.

Now what does all this have to do with the workplace, worldview, and ultimate truths? Strategic decision making in the highly competitive information age needs effective decision support systems. One of my dreams for information technology is that it will foster fact-based decision making and that this will result in changes through which Andrews will be better able to serve its constituents. Throughout the strategic planning process at Andrews, and in administrative offices and committees on a daily basis, questions are asked for which there is insufficient information to know the "true" answer. We have a flood of data in the Banner database, but an information drought. Decision support systems based on data warehousing technologies promise to convert the wealth of data we already have into readily usable decision support information. Of course, these "truths" are a long way short of being "ultimate truths", but the search for the best measures of what is going on, and for the right changes to bring about improvement, are essential parts of my role at Andrews University.

3. Selected Readings

These links point to comments I made in WebCT as we discussed the various papers Shirley Freed selected for us to read.

3.1 Participation, Silence, Choice, Apathy

3.2 Big Questions

3.3 Problem Based Learning

3.4 Learning Organizations

3.5 Who are our students? and Lifelong Learning

3.6 Private or public, decentralize or centralize

4. List of References

ACE. People You Should Know: Freire. (EN-0700)
(local server)

Alaby, José. (1998). Philosophy of Knowledge. (EN-0677)
December, 1999
URL: 2biblio/alaby_notes.htm

Buck Institute for Education. (1999). Project Based Learning (EN-0701)
Copyright ©1999 Buck Institute for Education
(local server)

Challis, Maggie. (1998). What counts as learning? (EN-0678)
Adults Learning, 1998, March, Vol. 9 Issue 7, p17, 3p, 1 diagram
(local server)

Collens, Lewis. (1998). Innovation And Leadership. (EN-0679)
Vital Speeches of the Day, 10/15/98, Vol. 65 Issue 1, p20, 4p
(local server)

Davis, Stan. (1996). Slicing The Learning Pie. (EN-0680)
Educom Review, Sep/Oct96, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p32, 4p, 12c, 1bw
(local server)

De Berry, Thomas W. (1997). Accountant and economist? Confessions of a professional hybrid. (EN-0681)
Business Horizons, Sep/Oct97, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p2, 5p
(local server)

Delisle, Robert. How-to Use Problem-Based Learning in the Classroom. (EN-0707)
(editorial reviews) (local server)

Engels, Frederick . Socialism, Utopian & Scientific Part II - Dialectics. (EN-0685)

Epstein, Irving. (1996). Educating street children: Some cross-cultural perspectives. (EN-0682)
Comparative Education, Nov96, Vol. 32 Issue 3, p289, 14p
(local server)

Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel; Marshall, James P. (1994). Dialogical Pedagogy In Teacher Education:Toward An Education For Democracy
Journal of Teacher Education, May/Jun94, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p172, 11p (EN-0683)
(local server)

Fincher, Sally and Petre, Marian. (1998). Project-based learning practices in computer science education.. (EN-0684)
FiE Conference, pages 1185-1191. IEEE, November 1998
(local server)

Fullan, Michael. (1998). Breaking the bonds of dependency. (EN-0686)
Educational Leadership, Apr98, Vol. 55 Issue 7, p6, 5p, 4c
(local server)

Glasgow, Neal A. New Curriculum for New Times : A Guide to Student-Centered, Problem-Based Learning. (EN-0708)
(local server)

Heaney, Tom. Issues in Freirean Pedagogy. (EN-0587)
(local server)

Houghton Mifflin. Project-Based Learning Space. (EN-0688)
Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company
(local server)

Jones, Beau Fly (Editor); Rasmussen, Claudette M. (Editor); Moffitt, Mary C. (Editor). (1997) Real-Life Problem Solving: A Collaborative Approach to Interdisciplinary Learning. (EN-0710)
(editorial reviews) (local server)

Kappelman, Todd. The Breakdown of Religious Knowledge. (EN-0689)
Copyright (C) 1996-1999 Probe Ministries
(local server)

King, William R. (1996). IS and the learning organization. (EN-0690)
Information Systems Management, Summer 96, Vol. 13 Issue 3, p78, 3p
(local server)

Knight, George R. (1998). Philosophy & Education: An Introduction in Christian Perspective. Third Edition. . (EN-0161)
Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press. 1998. ISBN: 1883925207
James White Library Call No: LB885.K55 P55 1998

Lane County Educators. Project-Based Learning. (EN-0691)
Lane County, Oregon
(local server)

Leicester, Mal. (1996). Organism and organisation. (EN-0693)
Adults Learning, Jan96, Vol. 7 Issue 5, p123, 3p
(local server)

Limerick, Brigid; Clarke, John. (1997). Problem-based learning within a postmodern framework. (EN-0694)
Teaching in Higher Education, Oct97, Vol. 2 Issue 3, p259, 14p, 1 chart
(local server)

Maxwell, T.W.; Shanahan, P.J. (1997). Towards a reconceptualisation of the doctorate: Issues arising from comparative data relating to the EdD degree in Australia. (EN-0548)
Studies in Higher Education, Jun97, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p133, 18p, 3 charts
(local server)

McGinn, Noel; Pereira, Luzete. (1992). Why states change the governance of education: An historical comparison of Brazil and the United States. (EN-0696)
Comparative Education, 1992, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p167, 14p
(local server)

Olson, Walter. (1999). Dark Bedfellows: Postmoderns and traditionalists unite against the Enlightenment. (EN-0697
Reason Magazine, January 1999
(local server)

Ozmon, Howard; Craver, Samuel M. (1998). Philosophical Foundations of Education. (EN-0711)
Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0136245609
URL: Barnes & Noble

Palmer, Parker J. (1999). Evoking the Spirit in Public Education. (EN-0699)
Educational Leadership, Dec98/Jan99, Vol. 56 Issue 4, p6, 5p, 1bw

Radford, Gary P. (1998). Toward a Postmodern Epistemology for Library Science. (EN-0702)
Library Trends, Spring98, Vol. 46 Issue 4, p616, 19p
(local server)

School of Education, Andrews University. Educar Es Redimir: AU SED Conceptual Framework. (EN703)
(local server)

Smith, Mark K. (1996). Dialogue and Conversation. (EN-0704)
© the informal education homepage
First published July 1996. Last updated: July 15, 2001
(local server)

Smith, Mark K. (1997). Paulo Freire. (EN-0705)
© the informal education homepage
First published May 8, 1997. Last update: July 15, 2001
(local server)

The University of Arizona. (1998). Educational Foundations - Examining a Psychology for Learning. (EN-0706)
July, 1998
Accessed: June 23, 2000

UCSC. Learning Organizations -- a Web Bibliography. (EN-0692)
(local server)

Wallace, Betty & Graves, William. (1995). The Poisoned Apple: The Bell-Curve Crisis and How Our Schools Create Mediocrity and Failure. (EN-0036)
New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN# 0-312-11876-7

Wilkerson, Luann (Editor); Giljselaers, Wim H. (Editor). (1996). Bringing Problem-Based Learning to Higher Education. (EN-0712)
December, ISBN: 0787999342
(local server)

5. Bibliography

Other Recommended Reading

Goldman, Alan. (1980). The Moral foundations for Professional Ethics. (EN-0331)
Rowman & Littlefield.

Goldschmidt, Pete and Eyermann, Therese S. (1999). International Educational Performance of the United States: is there a problem that money can fix? (EN-0052)
Comparative Education, Mar99, Vol. 35 Issue 1, p27, 17p, 4 graphs(0305-0068;)

Heaney, Tom. (1995, June 20). Issues in Freirean Pedagogy. (EN-0687)
Retrieved 20-Jun- 2004
URL: http://nlu04.nl.edu/ace/Resources/Documents/FreireIssues.html
(on local server)

Maxwell, T.W. and Shanahan, P.J. (1997, June). Towards a reconceptualisation of the doctorate: Issues arising from comparative data relating to... Studies in Higher Education, Vol 22, p133 118p. (EN-0695)
URL: (on local server)

Hirshberg, Charles. (1999). How Good Are Our Schools? (cover story). (EN-0053)
Life(0024-3019), p40, 43p.

School of Education at Andrews University. Educar es Redimir: AU SED Conceptual Framework. (EN-0703)
URL: (on local server)

Scrivin, Michael. (1976). Reasoning. (EN-0332)
New York: McGraw Hill.

Singer, Peter. (1993). A Companion to Ethics. (EN-0333)
Malden, MA: Basil Blackwell Publishers.

Sire, James, W. (1997). The Universe Next Door: A Basic Worldview Catalog. Third Edition (EN-0162)
Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN:1883925207
James White Library Call No: B823.3 .S56 1997

Sproul, R. C. (1978). Lifeviews. (EN-0339)
Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell.

Thompson, Loren. (1995). Habits of Mind. (EN-0334)
University Press of America.

Wilson, John. (1956). Language and the Pursuit of Truth. (EN-0335)
New York: Cambridge University Press.

6. Footnotes

[1]   Ozmon, Howard; Craver, Samuel M. (1976). Philosophical Foundations of Education
Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-675-08669-8. Page 24.

[2]   Ozmon, Howard; Craver, Samuel M. (1976). Philosophical Foundations of Education
Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-675-08669-8. Page 31.

[3]   Ozmon, Howard; Craver, Samuel M. (1976). Philosophical Foundations of Education
Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-675-08669-8. Page 36.

[4]   Ozmon, Howard; Craver, Samuel M. (1976). Philosophical Foundations of Education
Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-675-08669-8. Page 2.

[5]   Knight, George R. (1998). Philosophy & Education: An Introduction in Christian Perspective.
Third Edition, Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press. ISBN: 1883925207. Page 241.

[6]   Blanchard, Ken. (1999). Fourth Annual Worldwide Lessons In Leadership Seminar
November 17, 1999

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Created: Sunday, February 20, 2000 06:00 PM
Last Modified: Saturday, June 19, 2004 6:50 PM