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6. A competent scholar with a working knowledge of:
(b) Theories of learning and human development

6b1 Annotated bibliography

Development Plan Portfolio Documentation
Read selected books and online materials. Write an annotated bibliography, with applications to the various learning environments found in the workplace.
  1. Notes
    1. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology: Motivation
    2. Essentials of Learning for Instruction
    3. New Thinking for the New Millennium
    4. Six Thinking Hats
    5. de bono institute
    6. Perceptual Learning
    7. Marching to Different Drummers
    8. Learning to Learn: Making the Transition from Student to Life-Long Learner
    9. Passionate Organization: Igniting the Fire of Employee Commitment
    10. Motivating Others: Nurturing Inner Motivational Resources
    11. Electronic Sources
  2. List of References
  3. Bibliography

1. Notes

1.1 Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology: Motivation

This article gives a summary of the theories of motivation.

1.2 Essentials of Learning for Instruction

In Essentials of Learning for Instruction, Gagné and Driscoll (1988) describe learning according to the information-processing model of learning and memory.  The thrust of the book is to assist teachers in their understanding of human learning in the context of the design and conduct of instruction.  The introductory chapter contains a summary of learning theory, starting with E. L. Thorndike's Law of Effect in 1913, followed by B.F. Skinner's behaviorist theory in the early 1950s.  The authors then elaborate on the information-processing theory of learning, on which they base the rest of the book.

Reflection 1: While the book is target at teachers, I looked for insights that I could apply in my work, which are more "influencing" than "instructional".  But it is helpful to understand how learning takes place, regardless of the setting of the context.  I am particularly interested to discover what motivates people to learn, and what motivates them to hold certain views and discard others.  This is important if I am to be successful in creating an environment where IT can realize its potential as an enabler of value-added change.  Gary Hamel, a recognized world leader in strategic thinking, believes that the role of IT in today's economy is to create "new wealth by delivering new value to customers." (on local server).

In chapter four, (Learner Motivation), the authors describe three sources of motivation for learning – Curiosity, Achievement, and Self-Efficacy.  They then describe the ARCS Model of Motivation:

A Attention Arousing and sustaining learner curiosity and interest.  This is done by introducing stimulation that appeals to the learner by change, diversity, and incongruity.  
R Relevance The learner is aware that the learning experience being undertaken has personal value or importance.  Relation of the learning task to a performance outcome is shown, as is its usefulness to the learner.  
C Confidence Learners must believe that they can accomplish the goal of learning successfully.  A belief in self-efficacy is built up over many learning experiences that lead to success.  
S Satisfaction Satisfaction is the feeling accompanying the process of reinforcement.  This process occurs when the learner is given feedback information about the correctness of his performance, confirming an expectancy regarding the outcome of learning. p71

Reflection 2: As I apply this to my work situation, I will be interested to see if this helps me to understand how people come to master the intricacies of one software program or hardware platform, while making little attempt to learn others.  Part of it is without doubt the human tendency to resist change.  Once a level of expertise and confidence with a certain way of doing things has been reached, it is uncomfortable to have to change.  But in the classic cases of Macintosh versus PC and Microsoft Word versus WordPerfect, I am convinced there is more to it than that, but I don't know what (yet).  I hope to find out one day.

1.3 New Thinking for the New Millennium

Edward de Bono characterizes the thinking of the last millennium as being concerned with 'what is' rather than with 'what can be'.  This is the theme of his book New Thinking for the New Millennium (1999).  The book is a collection of 'new thinking' kinds of ideas.  Here are some samples:

"You can analyse the past but you need to design the future" Pvii

"It is little wonder that the judgement mode of the last millennium restricts us to past successes if the matter is important.  Design is at best a risky business but without design there is no progress." Pix

"Everything is fine but we are still heading in the wrong direction." p1

"We might be very successful in fixing things within the existing context (or direction) but it does not occur to us that the basic context may need fixing." p4

"A great deal of effort is put into improving education within its own context but this may have no effect whatsoever on changing the context or direction of education...

"Where is the examination in 'practical thinking'? Where is the examination in 'value creation'?" p8

"Democracy often evolves into a two-party system: those that propose and those that oppose.  Why not have everyone involved in the constructive process of designing a way forward?...  we have been cultured in the either/or habit of argument and debate." p12

"The brain is specifically designed to be non-creative.  The brain is designed to adjust to a stable world.  The brain is a self-organizing environment in which information organizes itself into patterns.  Once those patterns are formed then all the brain needs to do is to recognize the pattern and then follow along the track." p14 (See also page 53)

"We have no choice but to use established patterns for over 90 per cent of our thinking and our behaviour.  But we also need the ability to challenge these patterns from time to time in order to set up better patterns." p16

"The weakness of the judgement system is that it was never designed for change."
p22

"Judgement is essentially a 'backward-looking' system.  This is enough for most of our thinking and behaviour but we also need 'forward-looking' design and innovation." p23

"Recognition is powerful and useful but it is not design.  In the past millennium the domination of our thinking habits by the recognition and judgement mode was possibly justified.  That dominance is no longer justified.  In the next millennium we may want to be able to use our knowledge and our technology to design better ways forward." p30

:Being against something is very satisfactory.  There is direction for thinking, acting and feeling.  There is a defined mission...  Failure to teach constructive thinking to youngsters means that the only activity open to mentally energetic youngsters is to be against everything." p32

"Teaching the PMI [Pluses, Minuses, and Interestings] with its acronym is very much more powerful and quicker than trying to teach the attitude of a balanced view...  There is a huge difference between seeking to teach attitudes and teaching a 'thinking tool'." p35

"There is a huge difference between positive thinking and constructive thinking." p35

"Positive thinking suggest adjusting to situation and making the best of it by looking on the positive side.  Constructive thinking suggests you seek to improve the situation." p36

"Matters reach a steady state of equilibrium.  There are no actual faults so no one seeks to improve things.  They stay like that.  We get used to them like that.  We no longer think about them.  We cannot think about everything so we think about the problems that do need thinking about." p40

"Any new idea that does not raise a howl of protest is probably not a good idea.  Those who are comfortable in the use of the old idea find it difficult to see the inadequacies of the old idea.  If you have to imagine new benefits and you cannot achieve this effort of imagination, you have no choice but to resist the new." p149

There are many other gems in this book, and I have skipped over many of them.  To conclude, here is the text from the back cover of the book:

"The last millennium has not been a great success.  We have made huge advances in science and technology, but have still been let down by excellent but limited ways of thinking.

"The last millennium has not been a great success.  We have made huge advances in science and technology, but have still been let down by excellent but limited ways of thinking.

"The thinking of the last millennium has been concerned with 'what is' - the thinking of analysis, criticism and argument.  We need to concentrate on thinking concerned with 'what-can-be'.  This is thinking that is creative and constructive and seeks to solve problems and conflicts by designing a way forward.  The emphasis is on design, not judgment, a recurrent theme in Edward de Bono's work.

"In New Thinking for the New Millennium Edward de Bono offers a road map for the future, pulling together the previous ideas that have made him a world expert on thinking, and including totally new material to show us how and why this new thinking is the only way forward." (from the back cover)

1.4 Six Thinking Hats

Thinking and learning go hand in hand, and Edward de Bono's lateral thinking ideas clearly show that we can learn to improve our thinking skills.  In Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985), de Bono describes parallel thinking as opposed to argumentative, confrontational, and adversarial thinking.  Too often, we make decisions in committees based on the best argument, where each party speaks only in favor of its point of view.  "If one party thinks of a point that might benefit the other party, then that point is never raised.  The purpose is to win, not to explore the subject honestly." p9

De Bono uses the mechanism of six colored hats, with each hat representing a different style of thinking.  The aim of this method of parallel thinking is to have everyone thinking from the same perspective at a time, say wearing the White Hat.  Then after a period of time, everyone in the committee 'puts on' the next color hat.  De Bono maintains that there is an "absolute physiological need to separate out the types of thinking...  You cannot be sensitized in different directions at the same time, so when we set out to do all aspects of thinking at the same moment, we are going to be suboptimal on all of them." p12

White Hat Neutral, objective.  The white hat is concerned with objective facts and figures.
Red Hat Suggests anger (seeing red), rage, and emotions.  The red hat gives the emotional view.
Black Hat Somber and serious.  The black hat is cautious and careful.  It points out the weaknesses in an idea.
Yellow Hat Sunny and positive.  The yellow hat is optimistic and covers hope and positive thinking.
Green Hat Grass, vegetation, and abundant, fertile growth.  The green hat indicates creativity and new ideas.
Blue Hat Cool, the color of the sky, which is above everything else.  The blue hat is concerned with control, the organization of the thinking process, and the use of other hats.

1.5 de bono institute

My son works in a youth centre in a small Australian city, and he was invited to attend a three-day conference convened by the de bono institute in Melbourne.  The institute has published an article which my son forwarded to me that summarizes many of the ideas from de Bono's books.

~~~
"As Ralph Emerson put it perfectly when he said, “ There are always two parties – the party of the past and the party of the future, the establishment and the movement” Which side are you on?" p3

~~~
"There is analysis and there is reflective thinking.  These have a value because the allow us to understand things.

"There is critical thinking and judgment.  These have a value because they point out what is wrong and what does not fit out needs and expectations.

"This is not enough.  We also need creative, design and constructive thinking.  As this is the sort of thinking that takes things forward, and makes progress.  The sort of thinking that improves both personal lives and the development of any society.  This is the sort of thinking that solves problems, disputes and conflicts." p4

~~~
"What is the difference between intelligence and thinking?

Good thinkers need to develop certain abilities, such as cognitive capabilities, thinking strategies and the use of thinking tools." p7

~~~
"There are two concepts that are key in building good thinking.

"We have talked about inclination – the motivation to search for the strategy or tool, but there is also perception – the capacity to recognise the need to search for a strategy or tool.  The ability to ask the questions – 'What should we bring to mind?' 'What must we not leave out?'.

Perception and Processing

~~~
"Dr David Perkins at Harvard has shown that almost all the errors of thinking are errors of perception.  If your perception is limited, then flawless logic will give you an incorrect answer.  Bad logic makes for bad thinking, but good logic does not make for good thinking.  If the perception is poor, then good logic will give you an incorrect answer.  It seems perception works as a self-organizing information system.  Such systems allow the sequence in which information arrives to set up patterns.  Our thinking then remains trapped within these patterns.  So we need ways of broadening perception and of changing perception (creativity)" p14

Reflection 3: Two of the arguments I have been given in opposition to moving to the Microsoft Office Suite are clear examples of errors of perception.  The first argument opposed the move on the basis that Andrews is a General Conference institution so we must follow the General Conference standard.  The erroneous perception in this case was that the GC was still using WordPerfect, when it had officially moved to Microsoft more than 12 months earlier.  The second argument opposed the move on the basis that our overseas "Affiliates" used WordPerfect and that Microsoft Word was too expensive for them.  We needed to maintain WordPerfect support across campus in order to be able communicate with the affiliate institutions.  Again, the perception that the affiliates used WordPerfect was quite incorrect, and again, it was the very reverse that was true, because they could only communicate in Microsoft Word and not WordPerfect!

1.6 Perceptual Learning

Perceptual Learning is a collection of papers edited by Robert L. Goldstone, Philippe G. Schyns, and Douglas L. Medin and is published as Volume 36 of The Psychology of Learning and Motivation by Academic Press.

The following summary is taken from the Book Description under Editorial Reviews at Amazon.com.

"The contributions to this volume are concerned with perceptual learning in humans and machines.  As people gain experience in the world, their perceptual abilities are often times radically transformed.  Children organize their perceptual world differently from adults, and experts often have unique perceptual skills within their domain of expertise.  In a variety of ways, the contributors to this volume argue that perceptual abilities, rather than being fixed and stable, are flexible and influenced by tasks, needs, and environment.  This book focuses on new research techniques for exploring the mechanisms that drive perceptual learning in humans.  It creates a synthesis between empirical research and formal modeling.  Collectively, the contributions reflect an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of perceptual learning, describing research from developmental psychology, adult perception, language acquisition, expert/novice differences, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

1.7 Marching to Different Drummers

Pat Burke Guild and Stephen Garger

The intended audience of this book is primarily classroom teachers, but I found some ideas in the book that have a broader application.  In Chapter 6: Defining Style, the authors define four categories of style differences.

"To understand people's behaviors, we need to look at the roots of their actions.  One way to do this is to consider several basic ways in which we all interact with a situation, a person, information, or ideas.  First we take in the occurrence; then we think about it, react to it, and ultimately act upon it.  These basic functions guided us to create four categories of style differences.

These four aspects of style are summarized in a table on page 60.

 
Category Meaning Characteristics*
COGNITION perception, finding out, getting information

sensing/intuition

field dependence/field independence

abstract/concrete

visual, auditory (verbal, musical), kinesthetic, tactile

CONCEPTUALIZATION thinking, forming ideas, processing, memory

extraversion/introversion

reflective observation/active experimentation

AFFECT feelings, emotional response, motivation, values, judgments

feeling/thinking

interpersonal/intrapersonal

effect of temperature, light, food, time of day, sound, design

BEHAVIOR manifestation of all of the above-mentioned characteristics  
(adapted from page 60)

1.8 Learning to Learn: Making the Transition from Student to Life-Long Learner

Kenneth A. Kiewra and Nelson F. Dubois

While this book also is aimed primarily at classroom learning, it draws many lessons that can be applied to life in general.  On pages 26 through 31, four reasons why people do not change are described.

  1. Lack of Self-Awareness
  2. Lack of Self-Control
  3. Lack of Strategies
  4. Lack of Motivation

Then on pages 32 through 38, reasons to change are given and explained.

  1. Increase Achievement
  2. Increase Enjoyment
  3. Reduce Learning Time
  4. Take Control

1.9 Passionate Organization: Igniting the Fire of Employee Commitment

James R. R. Lucas

This book review is taken from the Book Description under Editorial Reviews at Amazon.com.

Everyone’s heard about companies that seem to have everything—great products, enormous capital resources, reputation, skilled employees, "advanced" planning—and they still fail. Why? Perhaps they lack passion.

Emphasizing "big vision," mutual trust, and deeply held core values, Jim Lucas demonstrates how to win and keep the competitive edge by thinking with the heart as well as the head. He shows how a committed, passionate workforce can:

Other Reviews:

From Booknews
Shows leaders and managers how to find and inspire passionate people, with a focus on deeply-held core values, mutual trust, and a common vision.  Filled with real-world examples and straightforward strategies, it reveals the keys to bringing diverse, driven, and feisty people together and bringing out their best.  Topics include ten clues as to how employees feel about a company and their role in it; how to align organization goals with employees' personal desires; how to cut out the deadwood; and the power of daring to be spiritual.  Annotation © Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknew.com)

From Library Journal
In the face of nonstop newness and constant changes, Lucas, president of Luman Consultants and faculty member of the American Management Association, instructs readers on how to find and inspire passionate employees who focus on diversity, originality, and feistiness.  These workers must also share deeply held core values, mutual trust, and a common vision.  Real-world stories and practical strategies illustrate passion from a business perspective as a "hard" skill.  Lucas lists ten clues to whether workers are passionate about their company and their desire to make a difference.  He tells how to align organizational goals with employee passions, pick and prepare passionate employees, and cut the deadwood or nonbelievers.  This unique and thought-provoking book walks a fine line, daring to be spiritual while not treading on employees' religious beliefs.  Lucas really believes that "the game is people and the formula for winning it is involvement." Recommended -- Susan C. Awe, Univ. of New Mexico Lib., Albuquerque Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.

1.10 Motivating Others: Nurturing Inner Motivational Resources

Johnmarshall Reeve

What is motivation?

"Motivation involves the internal processes that give behavior its energy and direction.  Energy means that behavior is relatively strong, intense, and persistent; direction means that behavior aims itself toward achieving a particular purpose or goal.  The phrase internal process is necessary because environmental events such as rewards and requests by other people can give our behavior energy and direction, too." p2

Why motivate others?  On page 3, Reeve explains that "most of the attempts of one person to motivate another take place within a relationship that involves an interpersonal power differential."  Some of his examples include teacher–student, parent–child, employer–employee.

Reflection 4: My interest in motivation in this context is not so much about how one person motivates another, but about what motivates, influences, or leads a person to form a certain opinion or make a certain decision.  For instance, how did Andrews University collectively decide to standardize on WordPerfect?  From what I have been able to discover, it was the first word processor that many people learned, so the issue of change from something that is familiar and that is working well to something different did not have to be addressed.  But a key factor seems to have been the many training workshops and seminars that the IT organization conducted along with the introduction of WordPerfect.  And even more interesting question for me now is, "What motivates a person to continue to hold an opinion after some of the initial premises have changed?"

There is a correlation between motivation and the level of enjoyment derived from performing a given activity.  "Emotion researchers agree that enjoyment arises chiefly from an experience of either need satisfaction or personal accomplishment (Izard,1977).  From a motivational point of view, the question then becomes,'What are the specific and identifiable elements with an activity that produce a sense of satisfaction and personal accomplishment?'"p60

Reflection 5: For faculty and staff at Andrews, a significant motivating factor for staying with WordPerfect and not changing to Microsoft Word is that there is a level of comfort and proficiency with WordPerfect that does not exist with Word.  Attempts to use Word are frustrating and discouraging, and many people report that Word is difficult to use, and is not user-friendly.  From reading the comments many wrote in their responses to our Word Processing Survey (September 2002), many of the tasks listed as difficult are simply a case of "it's difficult until you know how."

1.11 Electronic Sources

  1. Accel-Team.com
  2. Cognition - deciphering the effects of biology, culture, and experience on our thinking
  3. Higher Order Thinking Skills
  4. Learning to Think, Learning to Learn: What The Science Of Thinking And Learning Has To Offer Adult Education
  5. Big Messages to Communicate Around Learning from Experience
  6. Breakthrough Thinking and The Eureka Effect
  7. Faculty Profiles: David Perkins
  8. David Perkins
  9. The Thinking Classroom: Where Teachers Teach Thinking to Improve Student Learning
  10. Lessons in shaping 'intellectual' character
  11. Challenging the tactical intelligence of the gifted
  12. A Bibliography on Creative & Critical Thinking
  13. Creating a Culture of Thinking
  14. Beyond Abilities: A Dispositional Theory of Thinking
  15. Dispositional Aspects of Intelligence
  16. Patterns of Thinking
  17. Ron Ritchhart (a profile)
  18. Shari Tishman (a profile)
  19. Business Thinking Meta Model: Proactive Thinking, Reactive Thinking, and Passive Thinking
  20. Counterfactual Thinking
  21. Thinking Dispositions: A review of current theories, practices, and issues
  22. Thinking Dispositions: A New Look at What it Means to be a Good Thinker
  23. Adult Learning papers from Lincoln University
  24. The Human Side of Knowledge Management, the Part That Technology Can't Do
  25. Change the Way You Persuade
  26. Shadows of the Neanderthal: Illuminating the Beliefs That Limit Our Organizations

1.11.1 Accel-Team.com

Accel-Team.com has a web site (http://www.accel-team.com) with some thorough notes on Motivation Theory and Practice.  The motto surrounding the site logo says, "Advancing employee productivity ...jobs depend on it!" As suggested by this motto, the thrust of the article is to apply motivation theory in the workplace, and this is done under five headings.
  1. Motivation Theory And Practice
  2. The theorists and their theories
  3. Employee motivation in practice
  4. Financial Motivation
  5. Human Relations

Some of the theorists and theories include:

1.11.2 Cognition - deciphering the effects of biology, culture, and experience on our thinking

Aronson, Daniel. 1996

"Walking the 'Mindfield' - How Systemic Thinking Helps Avoid Common Fallacies in Thinking and Action"

Humans act based on information they take in, but there is imply too much information to process all of it.  The key is to condense the information and to structure it to reveal interconnections.

1.11.3 Higher Order Thinking Skills

Center for Critical Thinking - OnLine Reading Resources (OLRR )

This article summarizes Lauren Resnick's list defining Higher-Order Reading and Comprehension Skills.  Then it lists Robert Sternberg's "triarchic theory of intelligence", which involves three basic kinds of thinking.

Knowledge and understanding are important raw materials, but a "disposition toward thinking critically" is also important in order to "engage in higher-order thinking."  "Perkins (1998) has stressed the importance of cultivating in students a disposition toward thinking critically. The importance of such a disposition is widely endorsed, and we similarly endorse it."

1.11.4 Learning to Think, Learning to Learn: What The Science Of Thinking And Learning Has To Offer Adult Education

Cromley, Jennifer. 2000

This is a 225 page book in Adobe pdf (Portable Document Format).  It is arranged in a "fact sheet" style, where for each topic, a principle is stated, then a number of observations are presented, each with explanatory text and supporting references.

Mental models (page 27) help our thinking in five different ways:

  1. Learning and memory are more efficient because the information is organized.
  2. They create expectations, such as what to look out for.
  3. Memory is aided through association of objects.
  4. Comprehension is aided through having organized background information.
  5. They include problem-solving shortcuts.

Critical Thinking Principle (page 137): "People Make Predictable Types of Thinking Mistakes."

Common Thinking Mistakes (page 137)

  1. coming to a favored conclusion without looking at the evidence
  2. not following logic when they disagree with a logical conclusion
  3. choosing the most familiar answer
  4. not plugging in information that would disprove their own theory
  5. not noticing details
  6. not considering other points of view
  7. not noticing whether they understand or not
  8. giving in to frustration and guessing or not thinking
  9. assuming the answer or outcome they expect
  10. basing opinions on the credibility of the speaker, not on the evidence

Adult Learning (page 183): "Adults Show The Same Patterns Of Learning As Children,But Very Few Studies Have Been Done."

1.11.5 Big Messages to Communicate Around Learning from Experience

Grotzer, Tina. Harvard Graduate School of Education

In the third area "where teachers can help students learn to feel comfortable taking risks in their thinking", there are some lessons that can be applied beyond the classroom.

"3. Students need opportunities to learn forms of thinking that embody risk-taking and openness.

"There are different modes of thinking and these modes map onto to different problem types to help us think well in a variety of situations. Researchers David Perkins and Shari Tishman refer to seven different thinking dispositions and the sensitivities, skills, and inclinations that are associated with each. At least two of these relate to the open-ended forms of thinking: 1) The disposition to be broad and adventurous and 2) the disposition towards wondering and problem-finding.

"1. The disposition to be broad and adventurous refers to the tendency to be open-minded, to generate multiple options, to explore alternative views, to have an alertness to narrow thinking. It's purpose is "to push beyond the obvious and reach towards a richer conception of a topic or a broader set of options or ideas" according to Tishman and colleagues.

"2. The disposition toward wondering, problem-finding, and investigating- The tendency to wonder, probe, find problems, a zest for inquiry, an alertness to anomalies and puzzles, the ability to formulate questions and investigate carefully. It's purpose is "to find and define puzzles, mysteries and uncertainties; to stimulate inquiry" according to Tishman and colleagues."

1.11.6 Breakthrough Thinking and The Eureka Effect

Harvard Graduate School of Education. 2001

This article is based on an interview with David Perkins.  He explains "breakthrough thinking" as:

"Breakthrough thinking basically concerns creativity—the kind of creativity that involves thinking outside the box... In The Eureka Effect, I argue that fundamental discovery or invention involves distinctive patterns of thinking very different from ordinary problem solving."

Here's the final question in the interview.

Q: What might you offer as a take-home message to guide one's thinking about creativity?

A: The Eureka Effect argues that innovative thinking has its own distinctive logic, with four basic branches—roving through many possibilities as in brainstorming, detecting subtle clues that reflect anomalies, reframing problems, and decentering from current fixations. All that's based on an information processing analysis of what's involved. But attitudes are also tremendously important. It's worth thinking of creativity as a disposition, a kind of attitudinal flashlight that we shine toward many things, but not everything. If you look at the lives of creative people, find them questioning much, but they can be ordinary too. They probably buy bread the same way anybody else buys bread.

1.11.7 Faculty Profiles: David Perkins

Harvard Graduate School of Education

This is a brief profile of David Perkins, with his contact information, publications, areas of expertise, etc.

1.11.8 David Perkins (another profile)

This is a longer profile of David Perkins.

1.11.9 The Thinking Classroom: Where Teachers Teach Thinking to Improve Student Learning

Harvard Graduate School of Education

Home page to the Thinking Classroom, the ALPS (Active Learning Practices for Schools) project of the Harvard Graduate School of Education.  Links include:

1.11.10 Lessons in shaping 'intellectual' character

Kuhl, Mary. 2002

This article from the Christian Science Monitor by Mary Kuhn is based on an interview with Ron Ritchhart about his book, "Intellectual Character: What It Is, Why It Matters, and How To Get It"

"Ritchhart has identified six dispositions as central to intelligence. A person must be curious, open-minded, reflective, strategic, skeptical, and must search for truth and understanding. By looking at cognitive ability as a set of behaviors rather than an innate talent, intelligence becomes something that educators can teach."

Ritchhart is a strong advocate of the interactive, thinking and discussing classroom setting.

1.11.11 Challenging the tactical intelligence of the gifted

Langrehr, John. 1996, 17-Apr-1996

Dr. John Langehr comments on the distinction between tactical and content Intelligence.  Using a computer as a model, he likens tactical intelligence to the programs that run on a computer, and content intelligence to the data that is created and manipulated by the programs.  As you work through situations and problems, you are unconsciously asking yourself questions.  Langrehr calls these sequences of self-questions "THINKING CHIPS".  Then he clusters the thoughts and questions into four groups that correspond to the four P's of good thinking.

  1. "have a POSITIVE disposition towards a mental or physical task.
  2. "are quick to seek and notice relevant PATTERNS in information.
  3. "connect information by asking themselves PROBING questions about it.
  4. "mentally PICTURE the key words/connections in information with maps that clarify and summarise."

1.11.12 A Bibliography on Creative & Critical Thinking

Ngee Ann Polytechnic Library. 2000, 16 June 2000

This is page of links to resources on creative and critical thinking.

1.11.13 Creating a Culture of Thinking

Perkins, David. 1993

This article was published in Educational Leadership, Volume 51 Number 3 in November 1993.  Perkins establishes the connection between thinking and learning.

"Students who 'see the connections' are more likely to understand and remember what they learn. In the next several issues, David Perkins will explore ways to forge the link between thinking and learning as well as ways schools can use the various curriculum strands to teach thinking skills."

But he uses an illustration to make the point that thinking skills and abilities are not enough, and he introduces the idea of "thinking dispositions".

"If you have a disposition to behave in a certain way, you have the kinds of attitudes, understandings, and motivations that nudge you to behave that way."

But how can dispositions be cultivated?

"one clue comes from everyday experience: People acquire dispositions all the time, through "enculturation." We grow up, play, and work in settings where certain values and practices are honored. We learn, by osmosis as it were, to honor them too. The moral: To teach for thinking, it's not enough to teach skills and strategies. We need to create a culture that "enculturates" students into good thinking practices."

How can I apply this to the workplace?  In his conclusion on Creating a Culture of Thinking, I found this statement:

"A casual put-down of a not-so-smart answer, or a mindless assignment, whatever the main content, sends a side-message about what we expect of students and what they might expect of themselves. So does a thoughtful reaction to a not-so-smart response or an assignment that asks students to grapple with ideas."

1.11.14 Beyond Abilities: A Dispositional Theory of Thinking

Perkins, David N., Jay, Eileen and Tishman, Shari

The authors propose a theory of good thinking that goes beyond abilities and is based on dispositions.  They take the concept of dispositions and expand it beyond being a matter of motivation to emphasize three aspects:

  1. "inclinations, which may reflect motivation, habit, policy, or other factors,
  2. "sensitivity to occasion, and
  3. "abilities themselves"

They identify some "key dispositions for good thinking":

  1. The disposition to be broad and adventurous
  2. The disposition toward sustained intellectual curiosity
  3. The disposition to clarify and seek understanding
  4. The disposition to be planful and strategic
  5. The disposition to be intellectually careful
  6. The disposition to seek and evaluate reasons
  7. The disposition to be metacognitive

Then they analyze these seven dispositions in terms of the "triad of inclinations, sensitivities, and abilities."

Reflection 6: When considering academics, no one can have any doubt that strong thinking ability is present.  But when it comes to thinking about the question, "What is the right word processor for Andrews University at this time?", it is very clear that sensitivity to occasion and inclinations, (which may reflect motivation, habit, policy) have played a major role in the conclusions many have arrived at in the past.

1.11.15 Dispositional Aspects of Intelligence

Perkins, David N. and Tishman, Shari. 1998

This article defines and clarifies the concept of thinking dispositions by address six questions:

  1. What are thinking dispositions?
  2. Why are thinking dispositions important in modeling intelligent behavior?
  3. Can thinking dispositions be measured and how?
  4. How much do thinking dispositions contribute to intelligent behavior?
  5. How do thinking dispositions relate to thinking abilities?
  6. What kinds of thinking dispositions are there?

Research is described and reported under question four that establish "that sensitivity and inclination constitute significant components of intellectual behavior..." (see under question 5 in the article).

"The concept of thinking dispositions has been advanced as an explanatory construct that addresses the gap between ability and performance..."

1.11.16 Patterns of Thinking

A Project Zero study from Harvard Graduate School of Education
Principal Investigators: David Perkins and Shari Tishman

This recently completed multi-year project investigated the nature of critical and creative thinking.  The authors extend the notion of good thinking beyond cognitive ability or skill, and add other elements such as "passions, attitudes, values, and habits".  These elements are termed "thinking dispositions" and they "determine whether learners use their thinking skills when it counts".

Three logically distinct components have been identified: "ability, inclination, and sensitivity".

"findings revealed that the contribution of sensitivity is larger than would have been predicted, and that it is sensitivity, rather than inclination, that appears to be the chief bottleneck in effective intellectual performance."

1.11.17 Ron Ritchhart (a profile)

A profile of one of the research associates at Project Zero at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

1.11.18 Shari Tishman (a profile)

A profile of one of the research associates at Project Zero at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

1.11.19 Business Thinking Meta Model: Proactive Thinking, Reactive Thinking, and Passive Thinking

Shibata, Hidetoshi. 1998

This report sets out to develop a "universal model for business thinking" called the Business Thinking Meta Model".  It describes three different thinking patterns:

Summary of Business Thinking approaches

  Usage Situation Time Persuasiveness
Proactive Thinking Break through Unpredictable Time-consuming Less persuasive
Reactive Thinking Continuous Improvement Predictable Time-efficient Persuasive
Passive Thinking Situation Recognition Anytime Time-efficient Least Persuasive

1.11.20 Counterfactual Thinking

Reflection 7: When I first discovered that there was a field of research called "counterfactual thinking", my first reaction was that this must refer to the situation where the facts indicate one thing but people form opinions that are contrary to the facts.  In discussions I had been involved with concerning Microsoft Word and WordPerfect, I had met two instances where people had formed opinions that were contrary to the facts, firstly when I was told Andrews is a WordPerfect site because the GC is, when it had voted a year earlier to move to Microsoft.  Then second was when I was told Andrews has to use WordPerfect to communicate with its affiliated institutions because they can only use WordPerfect when in fact they only use Microsoft.  However, these are examples of wrong thinking based on wrong perceptions.  They do not illustrate what is meant by counterfactual thinking.  As I read further, I discovered that while my initial understanding of what "counterfactual thinking" means was wrong, this area of research includes topics in decision making and emotion, and the "understanding of the cognition-emotion interface."  So I kept some of these references in my bibliography to see if they shed any light on the level of emotion that sometimes attends the discussion about word processing software standards and decision making about software standards.

EAESP Small Group Meeting on Counterfactual Thinking
Mandel, David R., Hilton, Denis and Catellani, Patrizia. 2001

"Counterfactual thinking involves bringing to mind ways in which past events might have happened differently."

The literature on counterfactual thinking covers several topics in social psychology.

 
Topic Examples
Attributional thinking Attributions of causality, preventability, blame, and responsibility.
Judgment Assessments of culpability and compensation in social and legal contexts.
Decision making Effects on future strategy selection and on choice.
Emotion

Ways in which such thinking can amplify people's affective responses to the negative and/or disconfirming outcomes that befall them.

Counterfactual thinking is implicated in negative feelings of regret, disappointment, shame, guilt, and distress, and in positive feelings of elation, fortunateness, and satisfaction.

"Work in this area [emotion] has thus been central to our understanding of the cognition-emotion interface. Research on counterfactual thinking is by now also an important part of the literature on social comparison and comparative thinking."

Counterfactual Research News: Bibliography of Psychology Publications
Simon Fraser University. 26-Apr-2002

A bibliography of "papers dealing substantively with counterfactual thinking from a social psychological perspective."

Counterfactual Research News: What is Counterfactual Thinking?
Simon Fraser University. 23-Jun-2002

This article from the Counterfactual Research News web site explains counterfactual thinking and traces its history as a field of research.

1.11.21 Thinking Dispositions: A review of current theories, practices, and issues

Tishman, Shari and Andrade, Albert

This is another article that extends good thinking beyond "thinking skills" to include other attributes such as " motivations, attitudes, values, and habits of mind."  The work of a number of researchers in the field is quoted, such as Robert Ennis and his fourteen separate critical thinking dispositions (Ennis, 1994), Art Costa and his five "passions of mind" (Costa, 1991), and Perkins, Jay, and Tishman with their view of seven key critical thinking dispositions built on their triadic conception of disposition (sensitivities, inclinations, and abilities).

1.11.22 Thinking Dispositions: A New Look at What it Means to be a Good Thinker

Tishman, Shari

Another article on thinking dispositions.

1.11.23 Adult Learning papers from Lincoln University

Some of the links I found in my search were broken, but this one looked interesting enough to follow up on.  I emailed Susan Clemes at Lincoln University in Canterbury, New Zealand, and she located the documents and sent them to me as an attachment.  The papers are not dated, but their references are dated in the 70s,80s and early 90s.  The papers and their authors are:

From: Susan Clemes [Cleme@lincoln.ac.nz]
Sent: Monday, September 02, 2002 12:08 AM
To: David Heise
Subject: TIP

Hi David,

I've had a look for the files you were asking about and found that the files
have long since been unlinked. I'm not sure why. We still had them on CD so
I've copied them all to a word file and have attached it. They appear to be
snippets.

Sue

Sue Clemes
Teaching & Learning Services
Lincoln University, Canterbury New Zealand

Phone: (64)(03) 325-2811 (ex8663)
Fax: (64)(03) 325-3673

1.11.24 The Human Side of Knowledge Management, the Part That Technology Can't Do

In a paper presented at the Defense Information Systems Agency 2002 Annual Users Meeting and Training Conference in Arlington, Virginia, Samuel C. Welch (2002) examines what knowledge is and how it is acquired and used, and goes on to summarize Arthur Costa's (2000) "The 16 Habits of the Mind".  Although the paper was written specifically for a military audience, it can readily be applied in a business context as well.

In defining knowledge, Welch says,

"Knowledge, then, actually doesn’t exist outside human consciousness. Data and information certainly do, but not knowledge...  Knowledge is created afresh whenever a conscious mind receives input through the senses. Knowledge is refined when it is discussed through an internal or external dialogue.   Knowledge takes meaning when the conscious mind appreciates it’s own influence on knowledge. And knowledge is interpreted in the context of prior knowledge...

Knowledge is intellectual capital, and no one has any reasonable doubt that intellectual capital is highly valuable." pp2,3

"'In times of drastic change, it is the learners who inherit the future.  The learned usually find themselves equipped to live in a world that no longer exists'. Eric Hoffer" p12

"According to Dr. Costa and Dr. Kallick, a ‘Habit of Mind’ means ‘having a disposition toward learning and behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known: dichotomies, dilemmas, enigmas and uncertainties.’" p12

"'The situation in which we find ourselves today was brought about by a certain level of thinking; we must use a higher level of thinking if we wish to alleviate our present situation.' Albert Einstein" p13

On pages 17 through 33,Welch summaries Costa's "16 Habiits of Thinking"

  1. Persisting
  2. Managing Impulsivity
  3. Listening To Others With Understanding and Empathy
  4. Thinking Flexibly
  5. Thinking About our Thinking (Metacognition)
  6. Striving For Accuracy and Precision
  7. Questioning and Posing Problems
  8. Applying Past Knowledge to New Situations
  9. Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and Precision
  10. Gathering Data through All Senses
  11. Creating, Imagining, and Innovating
  12. Responding with Wonderment and Awe
  13. Taking Responsible Risks
  14. Finding Humor
  15. Thinking Interdependently
  16. Learning Continuously

1.11.25 Change the Way You Persuade

Gary Williams and Robert Miller (2002) have concluded from their research that

"executives typically fall into one of five decision-making categories: Charismatics can be initially exuberant about anew idea or proposal but will yield a final decision based on a balanced set of information.  Thinkers can exhibit contradictory points of view within a single meeting and need to cautiously work through all the options before coming to a decision.  Skeptics remain highly suspicious of data that don't fit with their worldwide and make decisions based on their gut feelings.  Followers make decisions based on how other trusted executives, or they themselves, have made similar decisions in the past.  And controllers focus on the pure facts and analytics of a decision because of their own fears and uncertainties.

"The five styles span a wide range of behaviors and characteristics." p65

This is reported in the May 2002 issue of the Harvard Business Review in an article entitled Change the Way You Persuade.  I get the same sense of "lights going on" when I read this article as I imagine would have been the case when the idea of multiple intelligences was first proposed.  "Managers typically use a one-size-fits-all approach when trying to influence their bosses and colleagues.  New research shows that's a mistake.  Persuasion works best when it's tailored to five distinct decision-making styles." p64 "All too often, people make the mistake of focussing too much on the content of their argument and not enough on how they deliver that message." p65

1.11.26 Shadows of the Neanderthal: Illuminating the Beliefs That Limit Our Organizations

David Hutchens (1999) makes powerful use of simple allegory to stress the important role of mental models in conditioning our thinking.  We tend to filter new information through our pre-existing perceptions, and this can be quite a barrier to organizational progress.

2. List of References

Accel-Team.com. (2001). Motivation Theory and Practice. (EN-0718)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html (on local server)

Aronson, Daniel. (1996). Cognition - deciphering the effects of biology, culture, and experience on our thinking. (EN-0619)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.thinking.net/Cognition/cognition.html (on local server)

Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. Motivation. (EN-0719)
Not found 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/g2699/0002/2699000230/p1/article.jhtml (on local server)

Center for Critical Thinking. Higher Order Thinking Skills. OnLine Reading Resources OLRR. (EN-0611)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002 (not found 20-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.sewardls.com/olrr/orr/hots-art.htm (on local server)

Costa, Arthur L. (Editor) and Kallick, Bena (Editor). (2000). Discovering and Exploring Habits of Mind. (EN-0748)
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. ISBN: 0871203685
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.habits-of-mind.net/ (editorial review)

Cromley, Jennifer. (2000). Learning to Think, Learning to Learn: What The Science Of Thinking And Learning Has To Offer Adult Education. (EN-0609)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.nifl.gov/nifl/fellowship/cromley_report.pdf (on local server)

de Bono, Edward.  (1999).  New Thinking for the New Millennium. (EN-0142)
Ringwood, Australia: Penguin Books.  ISBN: 0140287760

de Bono, Edward.  (1985).  Six Thinking Hats. (EN-0141)
Ringwood, Australia: Penguin Books.  ISBN: 014013784X

de_bono_institute. (2001).  Western Metropolitan Region Middle Years of Schooling Conference. (EN-0590)
Melbourne: de bono institute.
(on local server)

Gagné, Robert M and Driscoll, Marcy Perkins.  (1988).  Essentials of Learning for Instruction (2nd ed.). (EN-0180)
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.  ISBN: 0-13-286253-0

Goldstone, Robert L., Schyns, Philippe G. and Medin, Douglas L. (1997).  Perceptual Learning (Vol. 36). (EN-0179)
San Diego, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.  ISBN: 0-12-543336-0

Goleman, Daniel, Boyatzus, Richard and McKee, Annie. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. (EN-0743)
Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. ISBN: 1-57851-486-X (editorial reviews)

Grotzer, Tina.  Big Messages to Communicate Around Learning from Experience. (EN-0606)
Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://hea-www.harvard.edu/ECT/Inquiry/inquiry2text.html (on local server)

Guild, Pat Burke and Garger, Stephen.  (1998).  Marching to Different Drummers (2nd ed.). (EN-0405)
Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).  ISBN: 1-87120-306-5

Hamel, Gary. (2001, August).  Flying Blind? CIO Insight. (EN-0591)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.cioinsight.com/article2/0,3959,2169,00.asp
(on local server)

Harvard Graduate School of Education.  2001.  Breakthrough Thinking and The Eureka Effect. (EN-0605)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/perkins12012001.html (on local server)

Harvard Graduate School of Education.  Faculty Profiles: David Perkins. (EN-0604)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://hugse9.harvard.edu/gsedata/Resource_pkg.profile?vperson_id=4 (on local server)

Harvard Graduate School of Education.  The Thinking Classroom: Where Teachers Teach Thinking to Improve Student Learning. (EN-0594)
ALPS - Active Learning Practices for Schools.
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/ (on local server)

Hutchens, David. (1999). Shadows of the Neanderthal: Illuminating the Beliefs That Limit Our Organizations. (EN-0140)
Waltham MA. Pegasus Communications, Inc. ISBN 1-883823-30-7 
Retrieved March 25, 2001
URL: Amazon.com

Kiewra, Kenneth A. and Dubois, Nelson F.  (1998).  Learning to Learn: Making the Transition from Student to Life-Long Learner. (EN-0418)
Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.  ISBN: 0-205-26319-4

Kuhl, Mary.  2002.  Lessons in shaping 'intellectual' character. (EN-0610)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0514/p13s01-lecl.html (on local server)

Langrehr, John.  1996, 17-Apr-1996.  Challenging the tactical intelligence of the gifted.(EN-0596)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.nexus.edu.au/teachstud/gat/langrehr.htm (on local server)

Levine, Mel. (2002).  A Mind At A Time. (EN-0592)
Simon & Schuster.  ISBN: 0743202228
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: amazon.com

Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
Landa, L. Algo-Heuristic Theory (EN-0713)
Anderson, J. ACT* (EN-0715)
Cross, P. Adult Learning (EN-0716)
Knowles, M. Andragogy (EN-0717)

Lucas, James R. R. (1999).  Passionate Organization: Igniting the Fire of Employee Commitment. (EN-0174)
AMACOM.  ISBN: 0814404774; eBook: 0585053162
(extract on local server)

Mandel, David R., Hilton, Denis and Catellani, Patrizia.  2001.   EAESP Small Group Meeting on Counterfactual Thinking. (EN-0602)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/dmandel/aix.html (on local server)

Ngee Ann Polytechnic Library.  2000, 16 June 2000.  A Bibliography on Creative & Critical Thinking. (EN-0593)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002 (not found 20-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.np.edu.sg/library/ebooks/biblio.htm (on local server)

Perkins, David.  1993.  Creating a Culture of Thinking. (EN-0599)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/edlead/9311/perkins.html (on local server)

Perkins, David N., Jay, Eileen and Tishman, Shari. Beyond Abilities: A Dispositional Theory of Thinking. (EN-0601)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/merrill.htm (on local server)

Perkins, David N. and Tishman, Shari.  1998.  Dispositional Aspects of Intelligence. (EN-0600)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/Plymouth.htm (on local server)

Project Zero.  David Perkins. (EN-0612)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/DP.htm (on local server)

Project Zero. Patterns of Thinking. (EN-0616)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/PatThk.htm (on local server)

Project Zero. Ron Ritchhart. (EN-0613)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/RR.htm (on local server)

Project Zero. Shari Tishman. (EN-0614)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/ST.htm (on local server)

Reeve, Johnmarshall. (1996).  Motivating Others: Nurturing Inner Motivational Resources. (EN-0406)
Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster.  ISBN: 0-205-16969-4

Shibata, Hidetoshi.  1998.  Business Thinking Meta Model: Proactive Thinking, Reactive Thinking, and Passive Thinking. (EN-0595)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.mediafrontier.com/Article/BTMM/BTMM.htm (on local server)

Simon Fraser University.  26-Apr-2002. Counterfactual Research News: Bibliography of Psychology Publications. (EN-0598)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002 (not found 20-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.sfu.ca/counterfactual/ (on local server)

Simon Fraser University.  23-Jun-2002. Counterfactual Research News: What is Counterfactual Thinking? (EN-0597)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002 (not found 20-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.sfu.ca/counterfactual/cfback.htm (on local server)

Tishman, Shari and Andrade, Albert.  Thinking Dispositions: A review of current theories, practices, and issues. (EN-0618)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/Dispositions.htm (on local server)

Tishman, Shari.  Thinking Dispositions: A New Look at What it Means to be a Good Thinker. (EN-0622)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002
URL: (on local server)

Welch, Samuel C. (2002, April 15-18, 2002). The Human Side of Knowledge Management, the Part That Technology Can't Do. (EN-0747)
Paper presented at the Defense Information Systems Agency 2002 Annual Users Meeting and Training Conference, Arlington, Virginia.
(Retrieved a different conference on 18-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/annualconf/index.html (on local server)

Williams, Gary A. and Miller, Robert B. (2002). Change the Way You Persuade. (EN-0456)
Harvard Business Review(May 1), p64 9p.
Retrieved 17-Jun-2004
URL: http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=R0205D


3. Bibliography

Other Recommended Reading

Aronson, Daniel. (1996). Cognition - deciphering the effects of biology, culture, and experience on our thinking. (EN-0619)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002
URL: http://www.thinking.net/Cognition/cognition.html

Braksick, Leslie Wilk.  (1999).  Unlock Behavior,Unleash Profits. (EN-0175)
McGraw-Hill.  ISBN: 0071358781 (editorial reviews)

Bransford, John D., Brown, Ann L. and Cocking, Rodney R. (2000).  How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (Expanded Edition ed.). (EN-0167)
National Academy Press.  ISBN: 0309070368; 0309065364; eBook: 0585243379 (editorial reviews)

Bransford, John D., Pellegrino, James W. and Donovan, M. Suzanne.  (1999).  How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice. (EN-0168)
National Research Council.  ISBN: 0309065364 (editorial reviews)

Driscoll, Marcy Perkins.  (2000).  Psychology of Learning for Instruction (2nd ed.). (EN-0166)
Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.  ISBN: 0-205-26321-6 (hardback) (editorial reviews)

Dryden, Gordon and Vos, Jeannette.  (1999).  The Learning Revolution: A Life-long Learning Program for the World's Finest Computer: your Amazing Brain! (2nd ed.). (EN-0169)
Learning Web, USA, The.  ISBN: 1929284004 (editorial reviews)

Gardner, Howard.  (1983).  Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Second Edition ed.). (EN-0343)
New York: Basic Books.  ISBN: 0-465-02510 (paperback)

Gredler, Margaret E.  (2000).  Learning and Instruction: Theory into Practice (4th ed.). (EN-0170)
Prentice Hall.  ISBN: 0130122270 (editorial reviews)

Jackson Education Service District. (10-Oct-2001). Project-based Learning [Web]. (EN-0608)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002
URL: http://www.jacksonesd.k12.or.us/it/ws/pbl/readings.htm

Kiernan, John A.  (1998).  Barr's The Human Nervous System: An Anatomical Viewpoint (7th ed. Vol. 1). (EN-0139)
Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.  ISBN: 0-397-58431-8

Knowles, Malcolm Shepherd; Swanson, Richard A.; Holton, Elwood F.; Holton, Ed; Holton, Elwodd F. (1998). The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (5th ed.). (EN-0171)
Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN: 0884151158

Kohn, Alfie.  (1993).  Punished by Rewards. (EN-0342)
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.  ISBN: 0-395-65028-3 (hardback); 0-395-71090-1 (paperback)

"Kohn effectively counters the behavioral theorists and presents the intrinsic view of motivation in learning.  This book remains on my ""Top Ten"" list of books.  The book is so important that I believe it should be required reading for every educator."  James Tucker.

Papalia, Diane E.  (2001).  Human Development (8th ed.). (EN-0172)
McGraw-Hill Companies, The.  ISBN: 0072510277 (editorial reviews)

Pert, Candace B.  (1997).  Molecules of Emotion: Why You Feel the Way You Feel. (EN-0344)
New York: Scribner.  ISBN: 0-684-83187-2 (hardback)

Project Zero. The Creative Classrooms Project. (EN-0617)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/CrClass.htm

Project Zero. (08-May-2002). Innovating with Intelligence. (EN-0615)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/InnInt.htm

Ragan Communications (Ed.). My Number One Power Secret. (EN-0788)
Chicago, IL: Ragan Communications, Inc.

Siegel, Daniel J.  (1999).  Developing Mind. (EN-0173)
Guilford Publications, Inc.  ISBN: 1572304537 (editorial reviews)

Smith, Frank.  (1998).  The Book of Learning and Forgetting. (EN-0345)
New York: Teachers College Press. 

Simon Fraser University. (23-Jun-2002). What is Counterfactual Thinking? Counterfactual Research News. (EN-0620)
Retrieved 02-Sep, 2002 (not found 20-Jun-2004)
URL: http://www.sfu.ca/counterfactual/cfback.htm

Steiner, Rudolf. The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World Conception [Web]. (EN-0603)
Retrieved 20-Jun-2004
URL: http://gopher.elib.com/Steiner/Books/GA002/English/GA002_c11.html

Stipek, Deborah J. (1998). Motivation to learn: from theory to practice (3rd ed.). (EN-0181)
Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Stipek, Deborah J. (2001). Motivation to Learn: Integrating Theory and Practice (4th ed.). (EN-0176)
Allyn & Bacon, Inc. ISBN: 020534285X

Tuckman, Bruce W., Smith, Dennis R.  and Abry, Dennis.  (2001).  Learning and Motivation Strategies: Your Guide to Success. (EN-0177)
Prentice Hall PTR.  ISBN: 0130330639 (editorial reviews)

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Created: Sunday, February 20, 2000 06:01 PM
Last Modified: Monday, September 28, 2009 5:17 PM