Leadership Orientation - 1998

July 13-24,1998



Day 1 - Monday, July 13, 1998

Session 3: Discusison of the IDP - Shirley Freed

Session 4: Application of Technology - Jim Tucker

Day 2 - Tuesday, July 14, 1998

Session 1: What is a leader? - Jim Tucker

Session 3: Research & Leadership - Jerome Thayer

Session 5: Teaching and Learning are not synonymous - Jim Tucker

Day 3 - Wednesday, July 15, 1998

Session 1: The Educational Process - Tucker

Session 3: "Research on Educational Innovations" - Bill Green

Session 4: Writing the Vision - Shirley Freed

Day 4 - Thursday, July 16, 1998

Session 2: "Research on Educational Innovations" - Bill Green

Session 5: "The Leadership Engine" - Elsie Jackson

Session 6: Wrap-up - Bill Green

Day 5 - Friday, July 17, 1998

Session 1: Socio-Political Reality - Jim Tucker

Session 2: Models of Teaching - Bill Green

Session 3: Discussion on Dissertation - Faculty Team

Day 6 - Thursday, July 23, 1998

Session 1: Social Competence

Session 2: Models of Teaching (cont) - Bill Green

Day 7 - Friday, July 24, 1998

Session 1: Confluent Learning - Jim Tucker

Monday, July 13, 1998

Session 3: Discusison of the IDP - Shirley Freed

IDP - Individual Development Plan

See also Day 3, Session 4

Session 4: Application of Technology - Jim Tucker

Day 2 - Tuesday, July 14, 1998

Session 1: What is a leader? - Jim Tucker

General John M. Loh's definition has a powerful simplicity:

"Leadership is the art of creating a working climate that inspires others to achieve extraordinary goals and levels of performance."

"A leader is a mover and shaker who facilitates and empowers growth and improvement in other people or organizations, bridging between what is and what will be."

"A leader is a person that exerts influence that changes lives and destiny through service moved by love."

"A leader is one who inspires others through instruction and modeling. He/she convinces motivates and/or persuades others to act without being manipulative."

"Leader: Someone who inspires followers."

"One who has followers, manages resources, is looked upon for inspiration, motivation, and vision to achieve objectives."

"A leader is someone who creates an environment that motivates a team to achieve a common goal, a shared vision."

Leadership is a function, not a position.

Persecution: "The doctrine which, from the very first origin of religious dissensions, has been held by all bigots of all sects, when condensed into a few words, and striped of all rhetorical disguise, is simply this: I am in the right, and you are in the wrong. When you are stronger.

Session 3: Research & Leadership - Jerome Thayer

IDP Research Competencies: 5a, b & c
Quantitative Research (Bill & Shirley stress qualitative research)
Quantitative Research - Jerry stresses this
BOTH are important, need both

The type of research that goes in the IDP can be based on what you like, what you are good at, advice from other students and advisor. Take it all into account. Include philosophical considerations, study topic area.


  1. Aim of educational research is to pursue truth
  2. In most research, we never get there (truth is very elusive)
  3. Aim as scholars is to have intellectual pluralism (all points of view are equally acceptable), rather than relativism (all points are equally valid)
  4. Competent researchers use the methods that are appropriate to the problems being investigates
  5. Competent researchers should be competent to conduct and interpret both qualitative and quantitative research.

"Hegemony of the Narrative"
Definitions of both types of researchers - humorous, over the top, stereotype
Definition of Research
      Process of gathering data to reach a conclusion.

Qualitative researchers generally say there is no truth. So attitudes and beliefs about truth affect research method chosen.

1. What is truth?
Write a statement about teaching that is true.

Alternating lecture-style presentations with participative, workgroup-style activities is effective in many situations.

Is this a true statement? It depends.

Truth is something that could be falsified if I could collect enough data. There is a contradictory statement that could be true.

2. Does Truth exist?
3. What should a leader's attitude be towards truth?
4. What should leaders base their leadership on if not truth?

100= I fully believe the statement is true, 0=false
1.100 I am a man
2. 90 I am a Christian
3. 9 God exists
4. 60 I am concrete sequential person
5. 50 Bill Clinton is guilty of the charges

4 Ways of knowing things
1. Scientific Method for arriving at truth

  1. Systematic: eg, chose to interview 3 people - WHY?
  2. Controlled: why use only Adventists? Eliminate some variables, narrow focus
  3. Empirical: measurements, observations, data - can be words or numbers (other data can be
  4. Critical: allow others to analyze, criticize, publish in academic community

Alternatives to using scientific method
2. Tradition
3. Intuition
4. Authority

Qualitative research more at beginning and at end
Moving from exploratory through to confirmatory research

Session 5: Teaching and Learning are not synonymous - Jim Tucker

IQ of 50-70 is sufficient to master basic (grade 3) reading, writing and arithmetic. So why do so many children fail to master these skills despite having levels of intelligence substantially higher?

Answer: It's something other than intelligence, something in the environment, often the teaching.
S. Jay Samuels says poor teaching, not necessarily poor teachers.

Intelligence is: "What intelligence tests measure"

  1. Motivate the student
  2. Bring the student to the level of accuracy in the skill
  3. Provide the practice necessary for the skill to become automatic

Day 3 - Wednesday, July 15, 1998

Session 1: The Educational Process - Tucker

What is education?

Group said:

Education: educatus, educare = to bring up, rear or train a child

e = out
sducare = to lead, draw or bring

It is to bring out what is inside, not the pouring in of what is outside.

Faith makes truth out of uncertainty.
If there is such a thing as absolute truth is something that is always true, or else it is not truth.
A person can make a statement that is truth for them. But what they believe may not be truth.

Uncertainty drives us towards truth. Truths are the connection between the known and the unknown. The relationship between truth and uncertainty is a change agent.

Truth is unveiled from uncertainty.

Relationship between truth and uncertainty is like steps in the learning process.

Uncertainty is a pathway to truth. They are fluid terms that can change. I believe in absolute truth and that there is no difference between 100% and 99% (inconsistent!)

Truth, knowledge, information, data (facts)

In data processing terms there is a progression. How do these terms relate to Truth?

Uncertainty is what makes the difference between truth and belief. Uncertainty makes it possible for difference beliefs to exist. A leader will encounter differences in beliefs because of uncertainty.

Uncertainty is the engine that drives change. In any decision, there will be alternate, even opposing views. These should be welcomed and valued as rich sources of ideas.

Synergy = the whole is greater than the sum of the parts

(Sx)2 > Sx2 (1 + 2 + 3) 2 > 12 + 22 + 32

Table 4

Session 3: "Research on Educational Innovations" - Bill Green

Three most important ideas

  1. Don't assume the validity of the claims made for the effectiveness of different educational programs.
  2. Evaluating the importance of the research on which claims are based.
  3. Implementing change based on the research, not just the claims.
  4. The research is never finished.
  5. *Some things can be demonstrated to "work", via studies, even when research is unable to say why.
  6. "Research" has many diverse meanings.
  7. Application in the classroom setting must be researched.
  8. Application on a large scale must be researched before validity can be attained.
  9. Competence enhances self-esteem.
  10. Successful completion of a task is important to kids.
  11. Intelligence can be taught and enhanced.
  1. Reports that cooperative learning is true.
  2. Admonition to use caution with new ideas, and yet still be innovative.
    Anything that we think is innovative should be taken through the 3 research levels.
  3. Ideas have consequences - serious consequences because we are dealing with children
  4. Skepticism is a virtue.
  5. Cooperative learning, mastery learning and direct instruction are the most effective and defended teaching models.

Three most surprising

  1. How quickly some schools embrace new programs.
  2. Diversity of teaching methods.
  3. Some programs are based more on political agendas than teaching.
  4. Admonition to use caution with new ideas, and yet still be innovative.
  5. Amazing variety of different fields of research.
  6. Large-scale application is necessary in addition to classroom application to ensure validity.
  7. A comprehensive research model involves 3 levels of research.
  8. Sound research support at levels 1 and 2 does not ensure success at level 3.
  9. Little agreement on exactly thinking skills are.
  1. 1. So many beliefs turn out to be assumptions.
  2. 2. Why is this book not more widely known and used?

Caution is a good word when new fads come round.
Curriculum decision-makers are usually not well-based in research.

Why do teachers jump so quickly on the band wagon?

What do you agree with?

  1. Use caution when adopting innovative ideas. Because the consequences are so far-reaching.
  2. System-wide adoption of innovation should not be done unless all three levels of research have been conducted. Teachers not convinced of the effectiveness of the new methods will consciously or unconsciously sabotage

What do disagree with?

Warren Bennis "On Becoming A Leader"
A leader has a guiding vision
P47 What is true for leaders is true for all of us. We are the raw material we have to work with.

Session 4: Writing the Vision - Shirley Freed

Further notes on the IDP:


(Identity Vision)

Who am I?
Where am I?
Why am I here?
Where am I going? CS type
What part of the world do you want to change?
What's not working that I want to fix?


  • Experience in them
  • Education in them
  • Skills in them
  • Goals for development
  • Action plan
  • Time line
  • Present job – experience
  • Present job – resources
  • Evaluation model & criteria


  48 required AU credit
  24 dissertation
  64 transfer credits

This section documents your credits. It has your transcripts, course records, including transfer credits.


Sort the competencies according to:

Record results/feedback that shows/demonstrates we have achieved the competencies.

    -evaluations, surveys, letters, statistics, journalling, regional groups

There is an objective aspect - you said you would do it, you did it, here is what you did:

  1. report what others are saying
  2. report what you have recorded via your journal
  3. present real stuff, hard evidence, hard copy, videoed presentations you have made, URLs, CDs

Bring a personal transformation story - talk about a change

Day 4 - Thursday, July 16, 1998

Session 2: "Research on Educational Innovations" - Bill Green

How many credits for a faculty visit?
40 hours per credit for independent study.
30 hours per credit if faculty lead - 10 in class, 20 outside

Ask for a master schedule of regional meetings.

"Change occurs in two primary ways; through trust and truth or through dissent and conflict…Positive change requires trust, clarity, and participation." Warren Bennis.

Change - conflict to trust.

"I see four capacities required for building greater change capacity: personal vision-building, inquiry , mastery, and collaboration." Fullan, M. (1993), Change Forces.

personal vision-building

Personal mastery means continually

The relationship between the first two capacities - personal vision and inquiry involves the ability to express and extend

Collaboration is essential for personal learning.

Utility, practicality, connection between the Research on Innovations book and your field of leadership

My field is not education, BUT

  1. I have a team to mentor, coach, teach, share a vision with
  2. We are a service organization, with a large user base who depend on information technology to do their work. This creates many opportunities for teaching, consulting, developing faculty and staff in the use of these technologies.
  3. Stresses the value of valid research support before making far-reaching changes.

S Senses
A Authority
I Intuition or feeling
L Logic, rational
R Revelation - written and personal

Beliefs are arrived at by consensus or congruence or coherence or utility of practice - this is ways we come to know things. C3U/P

Types of research traditions:

  1. design experiments, record measurements, analyze and deduce hypotheses, design further experiments to test hypothesis
  2. design surveys, chose sample populations, distribute, collect, analyze
  3. comparative studies
  4. focus groups
  5. interviews
  6. literature survey

From the class (some of these are methodologies within a tradition)

  1. documentary
  2. single-subject research design (ABA design - the subject is their own control)
  3. case study
  4. statistics - systematic observation
  5. interviews
  6. pilot project
  7. random sampling
  8. questionnaires
  9. experimental & quasi experimental
  10. longitudinal
  11. historical
  12. bibliographical
  13. textual criticism
  14. phenomenological
  15. theoretical
  16. philosophical
  17. ethnology

We will classify these according to thought processes used and philosophical basis.

Which should you use? Use what you have been taught/trained to use. But we need to use at least one from both quantitative and qualitative.


Major Terms/concepts

Session 5: "The Leadership Engine" - Elsie Jackson

Leadership is the capacity to getting things done through others by engaging people's mindsets and energizing them to action.

What it took me/us to become successful
Ability to communicate it

Helping others to clarify their vision
Sleep deprivation

Characteristics of Leaders

Session 6: Wrap-up - Bill Green

Homework Assignment
Definitions of Inductive, Deductive, Adductive (metaphoric thought) Abductive
Read the OBE article

Abductive: I found 3 meanings related to this word.


  1. the unlawful act of carrying off anyone by force or by fraud; kidnapping
  2. the pulling away of the part of a body from its normal position (to do with muscles)
  3. logic - a syllogism where the minor premise has no proof.

Adductive also seemed to have something to do with reasoning, logic and proof, as well as muscles. An adduction is a bringing forward of arguments.


Logic - inference from a general rule or principle. A person using deduction reasons from general laws to particular cases. Example: All animals die; this cat is an animal; therefore this cat will die.

There is only one conclusion.


Reasoning from particular facts to a general rule or principle. Every induction is a speculation and it guesses at a unity which the facts present but do not strictly imply. (J. Bronowski)

Uses analogies. Gap Analysis, where there are multiple conclusions, uses this.

Quantitative Research - Deductive reasoning
Hard sciences

Qualitative Research - Inductive and Abductive reasoning
Social sciences
Other non-sciences - arts and humanities

Day 5 - Friday, July 17, 1998

Session 1: Socio-Political Reality - Jim Tucker

How do you get from a principle to a particular case?

Three world religions - Judaism, Christians, Moslems. All have similar beliefs in the Old Testament. But they will die or kill for the differences.

Socio-political reality is at the basis of our beliefs.

Leaders must be able to "encounter" all world views.

How do we know we have the correct answer? - answer in email.

Session 2: Models of Teaching - Bill Green

"Healing Words" by Larry Dossey

Seeds that were prayed over, before or after planting, grew better than the control not prayed over.
Religious persuasion made no difference to the outcome.

3 conditions - control, specific intercessory prayer, general "Thy will be done"


Qual abd

case study

Quant & qual ind & abd

comparative studies

All 3


Qual ind


Qual ind

Experimental & quasi experimental

Quant & qual

focus groups





Quant & qual ind & abd


All 3


Qual ind



pilot project



Quant & qual

random sampling

Quant & qual

single-subject research design
(ABA design - the subject is their own control)


statistics - systematic observation




textual criticism

Qual Ind (mostly) or abd


Qual ind & abd

Shirley Freed Potluck Sabbath lunch
6371 Long Lake Road

Session 3: Discussion on Dissertation - Faculty Team

Most people have some evidence used to support their competencies in their dissertation, plus some additional evidence. Some have a fully integrated dissertation/portfolio.


Bill Green


  1. Advisor
  2. Student's choice from Leadership faculty
    This will remain all the way through, unless you request a change.


  1. Advisor
  2. The other IDP committee person
  3. Student and team adds a 3rd person. Typically faculty, but could be a former graduate

This includes the 3 research areas. If Dissertation is part of proof of competencies, it will be presented here also, but this is separate from the dissertation defense.


  1. Someone within School of Education
  2. Other portfolio committee member
  3. Student's choice
  4. Others if student wants
  • You want a committee that works together, will read your stuff, knows how the system works.
  • Knows the methodology
  • Knows the subject (this may require someone outside)

Select a topic and a committee, write it on a yellow form. Name of topic and names of people who have agreed to serve on your committee. Followed by a description of the topic. That gets entered. You can then register for research courses.

Proposal then gets approved. It is whatever your chair agrees. Can be up to 3 chapters of your dissertation. This is the ticket to do the research, do the study.

When finished, committee will review dissertation and decide if it is ready to defend.

How many pages?

Bill would read 180 pages (no more). Can be written with more or less.
Jim: 150-250. Longer is unweildly. Shorter may be valid in very hard sciences.

Shirley: who finishes? Single people finish faster. Get a focus and get it early.

There are books on how to write dissertations. There is a blue book in the Book store. Buy it.

Thu 23rd

Session 1: Social Competence

What is my teachable point of view on regional groups?

A source of diversity, for richness of ideas. For the "lichen effect" (synergy) to take place, members of the group need to have different things to offer to the group. Tichy p50 definition.

Whole - part - whole

Do something rather than be something.

Stephanie said this:
Christ centered

Experience sharing

Interview for a documentary on diversity, as an expert on diversity, to get our teachable point of view for diversity in the workplace


For the "lichen effect" or synergy to take place, members of the group need to have different things to offer to the group. Diversity is a source of originality and richness of ideas. The value is the group is greater than the sum of the parts, but only when the parts are not all clones.


The energy comes from the excitement of dealing with new and different ways of thinking about things.


Nothing ever gets better by continuing to do things the same old way, but only when appropriate changes are made. Edge, in the sense of competitive edge, can be gained and sustained by energetically developing ideas that come from your core values.

Martin Luther King Jr. letter - resist injustice - Injustice anywhere is a threat to injustice everywhere.

Session 2: Models of Teaching (cont) - Bill Green

"If teaching were the same as telling, we'd all be so smart we couldn't stand ourselves." Robert Mager

  1. What do we see as the outcomes for this training? What are some general goals for ourselves in our own workplaces?
  2. How we train ourselves to learn those things?
  1. Be able to listen better,
  2. To understand people better, their differences, their ways of thinking, doing and behaving, to learn how to relate to them better
  3. To more effectively communicate or "teach" the vision about the potential for information technology to facilitate the achievement of goals.
  4. To
    1. integration of life and learning
    2. a healthy sense of self
    3. develop rapport with group
    4. appreciate diversity
    5. make a team
    6. be dynamic
    7. staff to become in student support services

Word picture of what you see going on in training sessions - any kind of setting?
What is the teacher doing, and what are the students doing?

Gary Smalley presentations have lots of personal illustrations, and he specifically teaches use of word pictures in relationships.

Teachers use multiple media, presentation styles, activities.

"Vision without technique is blind"

What is going on in a classroom?
92% is:


I want to add: activities, group and individual. Achieving the teaching goals with only these things (92%) is tough, and limited in effectiveness.

Cognitive ability - Bloom
Knowledge: recognize, match
Comprehension: K + recall, translate
Application: taking something from one environment and use it in another environment
Analysis: break things down into constituent parts
Synthesis: take the parts and put them together, in a logical but maybe different way
Evaluation: able to make judgements and defend them in front of knowledgeable peers

How far down this list can we get using the lecture technique?

"There has been more information produced in the last 30 years than during the previous 5000."

"The information supply available to use doubles every 5 years."

"Computer power is now 8000 times less expensive that it was 30 years ago."

Design a staff/professional development program, chose a teaching model

Identify the major steps you would take them through to learn.

  1. determine where participants are at
  2. set goals and objectives
  3. modeling, demonstration
  4. practice
  5. feedback
  6. time
  7. set climate
  8. build disequilibrium
  9. reflection

Training Model – Bruce Joyce

  Occurrences Knowledge Skills Transfer
Theory/rationale   80% 5-15% 5%
Demonstration 20-30 80 5-15 5
Practice/Feedback 15-40 80+ 5-15  
Coaching/study groups       80+

What are the general outcomes that you want people to have?

Reasons why job training fails
Lack of intensity
Lack of follow-up

On the need for change…
The world we have made as a result of the level of thinking

"Where there is no vision, the people perish." Proverbs 29:18 (KJV)

Fri 24th

Session 1: Confluent Learning - Jim Tucker

Where everything comes together and there is a balance.

Two Gods? The boring (to a child) God in meetings, and the God of the outdoors. All the pictures Jim's father put in his Bible are pictures of Jesus outdoors. But they are the same God.

Lessons from nature. Learn collaboration from the ants.

The bees:
Sunlight ->Flowers->nectar->honey->bees wax->candle->light
Wax moth intruder

Vigilance against intruders, or our light will be stolen.

Life is interconnected; there is a chain of interdependencies.

Cardinal and Robin built a nest together, laid eggs together, shared incubation.
This was a rarity, an aberration in nature.
Life will have surprises. Expect them. The lesson is in the unexpectedness.

Subscribe to Fast Company.

Advisor Bill Green
1st choice team Loretta Johns
2nd choice team David Penner

Regional meetings - always plan to have something signed off on the ISP.